The most important activities and challenges on agriculture and the influence of level of changes under cultivation on the situation of rural population (Case study: Eastern Silakhor village of the town Azna)



The most important and principal discussion related to agriculture and village is the role and task of agriculture as the main and common economic rural activity. As today, many of researchers and scientists, regard the agricultural development as the main strategy and main guideline of rural development, and believe that agriculture as the main resource of income and vocation options plays an important role in rural development. With no doubt, the movement of one country towards development and prosper, is not possible but through correct usage of all the resources and capacity. For this, there have always been different obstacles in country villages as the bed of agriculture activities that usually yield negative and harmful effects to this section. Correct collation with these obstacles and realization of agricultural development objective, requires reviewing past experiences, acknowledging current status, outlining the future observation and accurate evaluation of possible breakthrough from current situation. This is not possible but through necessary and relevant requirements for each region that are in harmony with reformations and country needs for taking advantage of scientific and technical innovations. Thus, in this test we study the agricultural challenges in the east Silakhor village in accordance with the important role of agriculture as the common activity of villagers and studying its influence of population status of the study region. The research method is survey which is obtained collecting statistics and data from interviewing, observation and questioner. The statistical population of this research was the parents of all the 12 villages of east Silakhor. Thus, initially we obtain a deeper understanding of the related village by using population statistics and reports of related departments in the state and section and center of village and using GIS software for frequency map of villages and some of supplementary data with the subject. Then a questioner was provided named village questioner, in order to name features of each village and vocation status in the region. Then, another questioner was provided in order to obtain accurate data regarding the status of agricultural lands, harvest method, irrigation method, popularity and other issues and their effect on decrease in land under harvest and recognition of the main obstacle in agriculture of region and studying the change in land under harvest and the population status of the study region. In this questioner, the Cochran formulation was used in order to gain the logical size of population sample. A sample size of 147 was collected according to the social volume of 1617 families, in order to assure the validity, 150 parents were chosen for replication. In order to be in regard with task technique and principals and credit amount and perpetuity in edition and arrangement of questioner, the context of questioner was supported in all the sections by consulting the experts of agricultural development, irrigation and harvest in the region, and then 30 questioners were completed and distributed as the initial test in two villages of research region that were not part of statistical samples, and using obtained data and using the special coefficient of Alpha Cronbach in SPSS software, the validity coefficient of questioner was more than 0.87. The results from statistical analysis in SPSS software show that the distribution of lands and their small lands causes less usage of machinery and non usage of new irrigation methods have had a significant role in losses of resources and this issue as the most important element, had a significant role in releasing many of lands in lands of east Silankhor village. Release of many lands finally resulted in reduction of income and unprofitability of agriculture works in the region and has had a significant role in reducing the population. As results show, the weakness of agricultural basis and unsatisfactory income form it has the most significant role in reducing the east Silankhor village population in 10 past years (1377-1378). Also in order to analyze the population status of this village, 1377 was used as the onset year and we studied the expected population according to natural growth rate in 10 past years in region villages (2.25 percent). In this regard the final growth rate and villagers immigration was respectively -0.70 and -2.96 which show the bad situation in this village. Instituting cooperative companies, developing agricultural development projects in the village like total modification of water network, support the quality and quantity of training programs, public communication and developing the integration of lands regarding more cooperation of farmers and executive institutions, are propositions that are provided based on research results.