Strategic Planning for Rural Environmental System Using SOWT Analysis (Case Study: Gandoman District, Boroojen Township)



Continuing environmental crisis, Human was aware of the necessity for revising its method of dealing with the environment during the development. Therefore, changing the development paradigm from classical to modern, sustainable development and environmental issues become major pillars of development and achieve sustainable development depends on the complete recognition of environment and natural resource and accurate and strategically planning in this regard is.
Strategic planning of the best methods to achieve the goals could be considered. This paper was conducted to determine the development goals of rural environment system in Gandoman County, Borojen Township in 10 year perspective. SWOT Analysis Model was utilized for strategic planning.
According to the strengths and weaknesses (capacity and resource) and also opportunities and treats (external factors and effective process), the invasive model as a effective model for environmental system adopted, and based on it, the strategies and quantitive preferent goals determined and coherence between them was established.
In order to analyze rural environment systems in Gandoman County, first strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the system were identified which include:
Strengths; having ecotourism potential and attractions, existence of two permanent rivers, numerous springs, suitable aquifers, high quality of water resources and mineral water springs and a number of Qantas, being moisture more than half of the year, there are nine plain rural for Agricultural Development and highland rural for horticultural development and existence of wild medicinal plants in the region.
Weakness; lack Watershed activities, the risk of water erosion and the natural eruption, earthquake and flood, low safety centers, residence and activity against natural disasters, environmental and sound pollution of gas station, surface water and groundwater pollution, and landscape pollution because of deficient system of waste collection and landfill.
Opportunities; increased consumption of mineral water producers and development policies of mineral water in Iran, suitable markets for medicinal plants, the increasing importance of tourism, reduction policies of natural hazards and detrimental health pollution, existence divers germ plasm and crop varieties in the country and the existence of oil and gas resources in the province
Threats; being surface water management outside the province, negative balance of underground water, poor crisis management, lack of proper and complete implementation of sustainable development policies, shortage of funds for dams, watershed management and construction of irrigation networks and deficient systems of waste collection and landfill in rural areas.
It should be noted that internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) of the status have been extracted from reviewing of regional environment system through the Library Reviews documents and field studies and external factors of region (opportunities and threats) also have been extracted from reviewing the documents of this field in the country and the province.
The significance of the coefficient of each of internal and external factors was calculated in software Expert Choice based on the Delphi method and according to experts using paired comparisons. The basis of paired comparisons was Thomas L. Saaty importance coefficient (rather identical (important 1) until quite preferable (important 9)). The importance coefficients were standardized through divided by average (total coefficients standard for internal and external factors is equal to one). to determine the final weight to each of the strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats were given rate 1 to 4 based on the importance and final weight of internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) was calculated 3.08 and external factors (opportunities and threats) was calculated 3.53. Finally, these weights were pointed in SWOT diagram and aggressive pattern was determined as effective model for environmental systems of Gandoman. This pattern for achieve the main goal (sustainable environmental development in the region) select the strategies that apply the available regional strengths for use identified opportunities. Therefore, sustainable environmental development strategies of Gandoman County are the following:
- Management development, conservation, restoration and sustainable exploitation of natural resources and environmental,
- Development of public participation in the development process, conservation, restoration and sustainable exploitation of natural resources and environmental,
- Mineral Water Industry Development,
- Develop and strengthen the tourism industry with emphasis on ecotourism and rural tourism,
- Improve crisis management in order to prevent the consequences of natural disasters and deal with it in villages,
- Reduce hazards and detrimental to human health and the environment pollution.
Obviously, in order to achieve the determined strategies and according to the main goal, objectives should be defined. These paper objectives at three levels of long term goals (10 years), medium term (five years) and short-term (2-1 years) were classified. The short-term objectives include increasing the level of public awareness on natural disasters, promotion of rural outreach skills, safety principles in building new homes, familiarize farmers with the principles of sustainable agriculture, identify species of medicinal plants in the County pasture, preventing the indiscriminate cattle grazing in pastures, improving exploitation model of water resources, inhibition of seasonal surface water, especially flowing waters, identify potential tourism in the region, familiarize farmers with the importance of Aquifers and Watershed Management, predispose for public participation in forestry activities, improving knowledge and skills of villagers to preserve watersheds and aquifers, the identification qualitive and quantitve capabilities of regional water to develop mineral water industries, studies about sanitary waste collection and burial in the rural area.