Study of Effects and Continuous Presence of Milk-Buyers’ Agents in Rural Areas (Case Study: Shishe Village’ Ahar City)



Villages in Iran are considered as the smallest parts of organizational and social units. Before the year 1961 all of the villages were owned by landowners and they have ruled at the different aspects of villagers’ likes such as the social, economical, politic al ones, etc. After the land reform in Iran, the old fashioned relations between the masters and peasants disintegrated in an inharmonious way and the agricultural economy of Iran moved into the direction of capitalistic economy. One of the outcomes of land reform in the country has been the increasing presence of trading dealers in the villages. In that situation there were two groups of the mentioned dealers: and forefather buyers that took the charge of Iran's economy. In order to come up with capital necessary for production, the farmers and producers of agriculture products tended to utilize their own savings or getting loans secured from financial/credit institutions. Rural Credit Funds which have been set up in the past two decades have been amongst the resources utilized by farmers and rural producers. In the rural and agricultural development Problems lokich usually occurs, one of the solutions for the financial ones has been to grant a small scale credit which was very important in concentration and direction to villagers locking serious capital and provided the spirit of partnership and teamwork. The small credits might be considered as an economic process at a glance but since the group participation of members formed a social network for loan payments without assurance and guarantee. They trusted to each other and besides, the social norms and values acted as a kind of guarantee; accordingly, when a project started with economic goals, it usually transformed to a social process. The research also resulted that the biggest problem of farmers has been their needs for capital and they were inevitably imposed to sell their wage in the very low price. The special feature of the small scale credits is quick as well as easy-provided without needing a heavy assurance and inattention to profit in providing credit services, and so one. The propose of small scale credits with a 30-year history has been eliminating of poverty and deprivation, providing small loans for low income households in order to form various activities with the skills and technologies they need. Giving small scale credits aims: increasing agricultural production, knocking out unofficial resources from the credits market, decreasing the prices of products, and increasing the per capita income, as well as decreasing the inequalities, adjusting the incomes and transferring new technologies.

In this research, checking the status of milk producers and the rapid rural assessment (RRA) were the first steps. In this point, the information collection technique was the semi structure at interview and observation (participatory and non participatory). The findings of this study were collected in just one farming year (Form Farvardin till Esfand 1387). After analyzing the mentioned data and finding out the change action of producers (continuous discrete), using Grounded theory, based on principles and practices of Strauss and Corbin trying was made to found out the reasons of the emergence of this phenomenon in the village of Shisheh. First of all, the research was based on targeted sampling, and it was decided to interview with 9 ranchers and the questions were about the reasons of rancher’s cooperation with the milk makers. In the next step with the information based on previous 9 ranchers, 13 more ranchers were chosen for the interview. Totally 22 person have been chosen
(9 based on targeted sampling and 13 based on theoretical one).

Shishe village the city of Ahar, is located at 50 km north-east among beautiful mountains There, called Asanda. Due to the good pasture in the region, the priority of their lives, have been the livestock economy. The traditional livestock per household on average 70 to 120 head of cattle has been kept, too. Traditional formula of rennet, leads to processing the desirable Lighvan cheese, with its national reputation. In this research in looking for the emerging issues, the following paradigmatic models arose, and each of them has got special casual conditions, phenomenon, context, intervening conditions, consequences and strategies:
1. The paradigmatic model, helping reduce the phenomenon;
2. The paradigmatic model of lacking self-esteem among villagers;
3. The paradigmatic model of popularity and pervasiveness; and
4. The paradigmatic model of individualist actions.

The central issue in this research which resulted from analytic information was the changing action from continuous to discrete ones and the resonance of individuality in the studied region, the paradigmatic model of changing action from continuous to discrete phenomenon.
Casual conditions: reducing norms of interactive and skepticism about the partnership, extreme monetarist, expansion of communication outside the region, and, reducing the level of trust in local environment;
Phenomenon: changing action from continuous to discrete ours.
Context: rate, intensity, time period;
Intervening conditions: Immediate benefits preferred over future, high activities of milk makers in the work
Strategies: Rigid adherence to commitments in front of milk makers, asking help of milk makers, denying the role of subjectivity and accepting the role of milk makers, Feelings of helplessness or disability.
Consequences: Forming a new type of capital and social relations, increased dependence, Reproduction of unequal exchange, Delays in achieving self-esteem and self dependence