Identification of Rural Tourism Problem in Chaharmahal -&- Bakhtiari Province Using Grounded Theory Technique



Tourism is one of the most important is sues of contemporary evolutions that with changes in land aspect, political situation, economic and cultural dimension creates different human life styles. Besides this is the most important factor in order to cultural exchange and familiarity with other nations from several dimensions (such as culture, nature, etc. …). Despite 20th century has finished, developing of some regions has faced with manifold problems and challenges. Because that previous strategies for developing of regions were not successful and could not solve many problems such as poverty, employment, hygiene, food security and environment sustainability. These guidelines also were not succeed in distribution of revenue that derived from growth and development and caused to manifold problems for different regions, especially the rural areas. One of the guidelines that recently has been considered in almost all of the countries in the world is developing the tourism industry in less developed regions and capable for developing tourism industry. Rural tourism is a kind of tourism industry that nowadays have prominent situation in tourism researches. The purpose of this research was investigation of the viewpoint(s) of related specialists, informed villagers and the community of tourists for codifying an applicable model for obstacles and problems of tourism industry in Charmahal -&- Bakhtiari (CH & B) province.

The method of this study is qualitative (with Grounded Theory), which focuses on population of three groups (communities). The main purpose of this study is finding a model of Tourism Difficulties' Qualitative Assessment of Target Villages and tourism centers located In Ch & B province, Iran. Grounded theory is a qualitative method that is used for Social and Economics processes. It was developed by Glasser and Stratus, and has systematic and regular steps (Adibhajbagheri & Salali, 2010). This paper provides a model from tourism centers and target villages in Ch & B province.
The statistical population consisted of three different groups:
- Key informants selected from the target tourism villages and provincial tourism centers. These respondents were chosen using snow ball method and in-depth interviews were implemented with them.
- Experts (of cultural inheritance organization, responsible for target tourism villages and provincial tourism centers, and governors mayors)
- External and internal tourists from Ch. & B. province.
Data collection process was accomplished with in-depth interviews, focus groups and direct observations. This process was continued up to the theoretical saturation point. After data collection, the data were categorized and analyzed with the application of coding system. First of all, open coding, and then axial coding and finally selective coding were used respectively. This information were complemented and adjusted with recommendations received from experts' panel and a general model was presented for tourism difficulties of target villages and provincial tourism centers of Ch. & B. province.

Analyzing the data (video tapes, interviews, photos and papers) were done during three steps of Grounded theory technique. These three steps can be clarified as follows:

Open coding step: In this stage with the use of open coding and line by line analysis system (Ghobadi and Papzan, 2010, 76) the data were analyzed. In order to do that, a code was given to each phrase. For example "P" & "E" codes were allocated in which E code was determined for experts' viewpoints and P code was dedicated to villagers, as well as external and internal tourists.
Axial coding step: After open coding procedure, the data were compared with each other. The reason was to find any reasonable link between the items (Danayeefard, 2005, 23). In axial coding system, different layers are developed and each layer has its own sub-layers as well (Papzan, 2003).

Selective coding step: In this step, the coded data were integrated in order to explore any reasonable relationship among them and then model's chart was drowning (Mehmetoglu, 2006, 14(. The main function of this phase was combining layers and sub-layers which was supposed to cover all data.

After data analysis, 84 items were distinguished in which they were coded and categorized in 12 main layers with the title of "Propaganda & Marketing", "Hygiene and Health Shortcomings", "Souvenir and Handy Craft", "Human Resources", "Lack of Program planning, and consistent research and monitoring system", "Tribal Prejudice" , "Dramatic Climate Change", "Lack of Local Official Motivation", "Lack of Proper Understanding of Tourism Phenomenon", "Shortage of Cultural Attractiveness" and finally "Fundamental or Sub-Constructional Problems" that their frequency were Respectively: 9, 8, 2, 4, 5, 16, 4, 4, 2, 5, 3 and 20. To design the model (according to the frequencies) each layer with its indicators were entered to excel software, were analyzed and its conceptual model was designed. Results, shows the percentage of each layer, "fundamental or sub-constructional problem items" with 24%, is located at the highest priority and "program planning and consistent research and monitoring system" with 20%, " Propaganda & Marketing" with 11%, "Hhygiene and Health Shortcomings " with 10%, "Human Resources" with 6%, "Lack of Governmental Attention", "Tribal Prejudices", "dramatic climate change", and "lack of local official motivation" collectively with 5%, "shortage of cultural attractiveness" with 4%, and finally " Souvenir and handicraft" item with 2% was at the lowest priority. This study was accomplished in 12 target tourism villages and 6 provincial tourism centers, and each location had special and unique characteristics.