Factors Influencing Rural Youth, Participation Regarding Agricultural Development (Case Study: Kermanshah Township)



Youth, as constructors of the future community, play an important role in rural economy and agriculture of developing countries. Rural youth accounts for around 55% of the world youth population. It was estimated that by the year 2050, 700 million youth are in rural areas. They develop the skills, knowledge and attitudes that enable them to take an active role in society. But as is appropriate, programmers of rural and agricultural development do not pay attention to them. For this reason, the agricultural or rural) development projects at the appropriate level, have not been succeeded. This vast majority, is accounted as the potential capital of the villages development from the traditional status to active and economic sector. In youth age development in field of physical, cognitive and personality is remarkable. Thus, youth’s participation is important and necessary in social life. Notably, the participation of rural people, especially the young ones in planning agricultural development in our country haven’t much record. Family and social construction as an example pyramid of power, vertical social relations, low age of the youth village, and less confidence to this group prevents their effective participation in agricultural development. Without economic growth and food security, no development effort could be sustainable, and agricultural development is a critical catalyst for economic growth and poverty reduction. Experiences of different countries reflect the fact that broad participation of different age groups, especially youth, has acted an effective role in the development of rural agricultural community. So considering the age structure of population in our country and the importance of participation in agricultural development, necessity to recognize and examine the characteristics of these groups to participate in the development is specified.

The purpose of this study was investigated of effective factors regarding Kermanshah rural youth participation in agricultural development. The research method of the current study in terms of nature, rate and the degree of control and method of data - collection was quantitative, field research and descriptive-correlation, survey research. The target population in the study was the rural youth of Kermanshah Township. Using multi-stage cluster sampling technique, 175 rural youth were selected as a statistical sample. The content and face validity of the instrument were established by a panel of experts in the field of agricultural extension. Instruments reliability was estimated by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient .Collected data were analyzed using the SPSS software. Reliabilities of the instruments were 0.85. For data analysis, descriptive statistics (including frequency, percentage, cumulative percentage, means and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (including coefficient of correlation, T test and linear regression) were used.

The findings of this study showed that; approximately of the respondent that amount of participation was average. The relationship between the variables of age, member of employed people in agricultural section, educational level, motivational factors, size of farm land, attitude regarding to employment in agricultural activities and using of communicational-informational resources were significantly correlative and positively linked with their participation about agricultural development. The results of different analysis revealed that there was significant discrepancy between participation in relation with gender and contribute in extension education. The result of stepwise multivariate regression analysis revealed that: The variable of attitude regarding employment in agricultural activity, factors influencing Youth involvement in the agriculture, level of communication channels, size of farm land and age predict a variation of 56.7% of participation.

Based on the main results of the survey, acquiring the science increases awareness and power of recognition. On the other hand, literacy is an appropriate tool to use other facilities that are effective in development of participative activities. Age in this study was investigated whether it can be effective factor in contributing or not; and after data analyzing, the relationship was significant. Establishing this relationship was because of their division into two groups: 15-19 and 19-24 years that in the second part because of their personal characteristics, employment and education achieved to relative stability, and had a broader range of experience than the first group and would have more participation in agricultural development. According to the obtained information, the economic situation was effective in creating participation. So the economic recourses were important factors in youth participation. Necessity to assess the attitudes of youth about employment and participation is in this respect that help the programmers to be informed of their way of thinking and if necessary plan suitable programs for youth’ reformation and changing their attitudes. Youth communication with people, channels, and different communities develop their breadth of vision in direction of improvement of the society in which they live in. And also participation displays as a mechanism that can be fruitful in achievement of this important aspect. Psychological characteristics such as motive engine, causing the youth take steps to develop themselves and their society that they live in. Motivation is considered as a youth’s force giving and guiding in agricultural development. Survey findings show that the gender has a significant difference with the participation of young people. This means that men participate more than women in various activities of agriculture. Perhaps the reason is gender discrimination that still exists in rural communities. Although women now compare to the past have more strength but in rural communities with traditional context many activities are not deposited to them. Between two groups who have participated in the extension classes and those who have no desire to attend in courses, there are significant differences. In fact participation in extension training courses has a positive effect on people attitude and as a result also has revealed its impact on the domain of psychomotor.