Rural areas, due to their landscapes, natural attractions and abilities attract tourists. However, there emerge kinds of tourism that with respect to conditions and particularities leave behind different impacts and consequences around that rural set up. In Iran, too, attractions and scenic landscapes as well as suitable ecological condition of some of the villages have caused remarkable growth of tourism over the past few years; hence led to the formation of different tourism patterns. Among these patterns, whose classifications are based on types and length of stay of tourists, include the second homes tourism and the same day visits. Today, these are considered as one of the methods of passing leisure times and refinement energy. Among rural areas, the villages of Shemiranat County in northern Tehran metropolis, have attracted principal forms of tourism i.e. eco-tourism, sports, religious and natural tourism in the forms of second homes tourism and same day visits. In other words, the effects and consequences of these touristic patterns can easily be observed in this area Paying. Attention to these impacts seems necessary, because the sensitivity of this region with respect to the ecological conditions and socio-economic condition. Taking into account the same, the current paper tries to identify economic impacts of the aforementioned tourism patterns, especially by designing a key question, like as follows: “Is there significant differences between economic impacts of same day visits and second homes tourism?” Consequently, with a Sustainable development approach, a comparative study and analysis of the economic effects of the above two patterns are accomplished.Taking into account the same, the current paper tries to identify economic impacts of the aforementioned tourism patterns, especially by designing a key question, like as follows: “Is there significant differences between economic impacts of same day visits and second homes tourism?” Consequently, with a Sustainable development approach, a comparative study and analysis of the economic effects of the above two patterns are accomplished.
Applied Methodology in this research is comparative and descriptive-analytical, based on documentation and field study (questionnaires). In order to reach to the objects, 5 villages - including Shemshak, Aahar, Lalan, Afjeh and Lavasanat Bozorg - were selected as sample villages where both second homes tourism and same day visits are prevalent. Statistical population includes 105 heads of the households living in these villages. For comparing effects of the above two patterns, at first step 34 necessary indices were selected based on related literature and their content analysis, and then these were assessed by 35 academic members and tourism experts through Delphi method based on 5 criteria in two stages, and finally 26 indices were accepted. Likewise, to analyze the data, descriptive and inference statistics calculated by SPSS software.
Research findings show that two tourism patterns of second homes tourism and same day visits in study area, lead to different effects such as creation of employment, increasing incomes, and increase of the buying capacity of local people. Also, there are some negative effects such as increasing the prices of lands and decreasing the agricultural activities. Along these impacts and effects, the most considerable point is that the rural tourism could be effective in boosting women employment, creating economic institutions, investment in tourism-related production activities and investment in education services. The research findings, based on the responses, confirm the effectiveness of the second homes tourism in a way that 74.3% and 25.7% people favored the second homes tourism and same day visits, respectively as a desirable pattern. Also, 71.4% and 28.6% responses introduced the second homes tourism and same day visits as more effective patterns, respectively.
The results acquired from a comparison of economic effects of the two proposed patterns indicated that the second homes tourism has been more effective than same day visits. As the study showed, there existed significance differences between the two patterns. Likewise, the viewpoints of residents with regard to their tendencies toward development of the tourism patterns showed that they are more inclined towards the second homes tourism. Along these tendencies, more deep study and data analysis of each of the touristic patterns indicated that although the second homes tourism has more economic benefits, it had more resource consumption compare to same day visits too. As such, the tendency to the second homes tourism turned around to the aspect that had been highlighted by a large number of researchers i.e. “understanding of economic effects in determining desirable tendencies of local residents were much effective to an extent that the undesirable effects and confusion became weaker”.