Analysis of Distance Impact on Integration of Rural Settlements in Kashan City



Trends of population in the past half century have witnessed the decline of rural population to urban. General Population and Housing Census Results of Iran in the past fifty years show that the exact proportion of rural population and urban population of the total population reversely changed (85.5 and 31.5 percents in 1335 to 31.5 and 85.5 percent in 1385). It seems that the four major actors in the formation of this phenomenon were: 1 - the mass movement of people (migration) from rural to urban areas, 2 - conversion some villages to the city, 3 - natural population growth in cities, 4 - the physical expansion of cities and consequently the integration of adjacent villages in the city. The spatial expansion of cities, integrating villages and farms in city are the major outcomes of rapid urbanization. In some cases, strengthening economic and social institutions, the increasing population of rural settlements and some government official's decisions are main factors of integration of the villages in the city. There are several effects and outcomes of this phenomenon in merged villages on city. It seems that the effects and outcomes of integration vary in different villages in relation to their distance from the city center. Phenomenon of integration of rural settlements in Iran during the past fifties has increased. The evolution of the rural settlement system of the Iran, especially in villages integrated, multiple effects and outcomes of the study but it remained the unknown in this area can turn to. Considering the above points, the paper tried to study the effects and outcomes of integration of seven villages in Kashan city according to their distance from the city center.

This research based on the descriptive and analytical method using extensive field studies and documents, including interview, observation and questionnaires completed by 260 rural households in the villages integrated and local experts and municipal officials. In this study 50 questions were used for assessing effects of integrating villages in the Kashan city. In this research 50 questions in different dimensions of sustainable development was used to measure the effects of integration seven villages in Kashan city. In economic dimensions, variables such as new job opportunities, job opportunities for women, job satisfaction, job stability, income changes and changes in land prices (residential - agricultural, industrial and services), ownership of land and water, access to financial resources, tools and instruments of production, non-productive, consumption and agricultural products, the tendency to the consumption of luxury goods were used. To measure the social effects variables such as; reduce motivation for working in the field of agriculture, changes people's attitude about life style, motivation change of youth for residence and employment in village people's sense of belonging to place, change in rural migration to cities, internal consistency (of integration) and integrated city with a population of factors, including social relations with indigenous people, social relationships with people new to the area, establishing family relationships, assist and cooperate in, participate in public ceremonies (religious feasts and celebration / mourning), social and cultural conflict between village and city merge were used. To investigate the physical impacts, variables such as land use change on agricultural crops, industrial, and residential services, improve access and increase the quality of facilities and services such as water, sanitary piping, telecommunications, communication and transport networks, street beautification, banks, green space, educational services, health services, administrative and recreational areas and sports have been used Data collected has been analyzed by using SPSS software (for descriptive statistics and inferential analysis; Wilcoxon T test and Correlation coefficient) and Geographic Information System (GIS) software.

Integrated villages have been at different distances from the Kashan city center; Zydy village 3 kilometers, Fin-e Bozorg and Dyzichh 4 kilometers, Fin-e Kochak and Lthour 5 kilometers Tahrabad 12 kilometers and Khzaq 13 kilometers from the city center of Kashan. Results showed that the integration of rural villages in the city has remained several impacts in different dimension. Especially the outcomes that has caused some of the villages in different dimensions such In Zydy physical, social and economic integration in the city are great and some, like Fin-e Bozorg, Fin-e Kouchak and Dyzichh and Lthour two areas are merged in (mergers experienced moderate). Two villages Tahrabad and Khzaq just in the economic merged in the city of Kashan and perhaps the only acceded to Kashan. In other words have the weak integration of the experience.

The results showed that there are significant differences between villages in terms of integration and acceptance in the city. So that some of them merely acceded to the city and others have been fully integrated in the city as a neighborhood of the city neighborhoods. Some may even consider just one dimension of sustainable development (physically, economically and socially) and merged in the city. Integration (in physical, economic and social dimensions) between villages in the city and the distance to the downtown is meaningful in statistical tests. So it can be concluded that one of the factors affecting the integration of the villages in cites is distance between the villages with city. In other words, lower the distance to the downtown higher level integration.