The Effects of Tourism on Entrepreneurial Attitudes in Rural Areas (Case Study: Compare of Abr and Abarsej Villages- Shahrud County)



Tourism is one of the world's largest industries, generating. 11.1% of global GDP, nearly employing 260 million people and annual turnover about 4.5 trillion dollars. In other words, the tourism accounted for 8 percent of total global employment offers. In 80 percent countries in the world, or in more than 150 countries, the tourism is among the five most important sources of foreign exchange business, and in 60 countries, it is ranked in the first position. Given the capacity of natural and cultural tourism in villages, it can play an important role in the revitalization of the villages, creating employment and incomes for rural residents, as well as protection of natural heritage, history, and culture. Ultimately it can lead to the integrated and sustainable rural development. The creation of entrepreneurial opportunities is among the important effects of rural tourism, and analysis of entrepreneurial attitudes affected of rural tourism is a key factor in this matter. However, although the high attention has been paid to rural tourism in recent years, but there is a few researches about relation between tourism and entrepreneurial attitudes in rural areas. This is the main question of the research: Is there a significance difference between touristic villages and non-touristic ones in the study area? The Abr and Abarsej villages are the case study and located in south of eastern Elborz Mountains in Bastam District and Shahrud County. The Abr village unlikely Abarsej village is a touristic village and located near to Abr forest.

near to Abr forest.

The present research work is a descriptive and applied one. For gathering data due to lack a tool for measuring entrepreneurial attitudes about rural tourism, authors have used a researcher-made tool as scaling entrepreneurial attitudes. According to that, the primary has been scale designed with 86 items. According to the study content and formal validity, the primary scale has been evaluated by 12 tourism and entrepreneurship experts and finally the numbers of items have been decreased to 54 items. In designed questionnaire, there are 8 questions about the opportunity discretions, 10 ones about the risks, 7 ones refer to confidence, 11 ones are about self-controlling, 10 questions about success, and at last 8 ones are about innovation in final scale. The population in this study is consists of residence individuals in the ages of 20-60 in two villages Abr and Abarsej in Shahrud County, with a diploma or higher qualification and at least three years of residency in these villages.
The answers have been classified by Likert degree scale from 1(very low) to 5 (very high), Also, the internal similarities on questions have been calculated of by Cronbach's Alpha Method with output .72 that therefore is acceptable.
To analysis of data we used some tests and methods including the K-S Test for the equality of continuous, the Levene Test about Equality of Variances between compared groups, Factor analysis for calculating the construct validity and study measurement models, one sample t-test for assessing of variables in studied sample, and finally the Multi-Variable ANOVA test for comparing the dimensions of entrepreneurial attitude in the two villages. All of analysis has been used in 95% confidence levels and by SPSS and LISREL software.

The calculated descriptive statistics on entrepreneurial attitude indicates the dimensions and levels in two villages. In Abr village, the score of identify opportunities is 3.32 ±0.76, tendency to risk 3.03±0.7, self-confidence 3.31± 0.62, self-control 3.3±0.63, seeking success 3.28±0.75 and innovation is 2.85±0.78. These figures for Abarsej village are following: 2.62±0.66, 2.43±0.52, 2.57±0.48, 2.42±0.34, 2.91±0.57 and 2.58±0.78. Also the overall level of entrepreneurial attitude in Abr and Abarsej villages has been calculated 19.44±3.06 and 15.83±1.47.
However for testing the research hypotheses on tourism effects on entrepreneurial attitude, authors have used the MANOVA indicates significance different as:
Wilks's lambda=0.467 ; F(6,95)=18.05 ; p<0.001 ; ?2=0.53.
The result indicates that the effects on tourism on opportunity reorganization, tendency to risk, self-confidence, to get success, and innovation and total level of entrepreneurial attitude are significance statistically.

The results of this study indicate that tourism via the creating opportunities for increasing the rural income is able to recognizing opportunities. Therefore it seems that tourism can increase the identity opportunities and entrepreneurial consciousness by rural people. This means that rural people starting business by tourism opportunities. However the research findings indicates that tourism activities increased the total level of entrepreneurial attitude in Abr village and therefore the tourism can be as an effectives tools to develop of entrepreneurial activities in rural regions.