Document Type : Research Paper
Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tehran
M.Sc. Student of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tehran
Ph.D. Candidate of Geography and Urban Planning, Isfahan University
M.Sc. in Geography and Rural Planning, Shahid Beheshti University
Society is a series of conditions and situations which makes the society sustainable and peaceful and fear and horror is finished from the public’s viewpoints. The insecurity of places and public spaces disrupt high spirits and health in life and it imposes extra expenses on the society by creating obstacles on the way of cultural growth and public cooperation. In this paper have been analyzed the sense of security and fear of spaces in urban and rural settlements. The main purpose of this study assessment is the comparative analysis of rural and urban settlements of sense of security in the Koohdasht County.
The main questions of this research are as follows:
- Is there significant difference between urban and rural settlements of the public sense of security?
- Is there significant difference between urban and rural settlements of sense of security in semipublic and public spaces?
- Is there significant difference between rural and urban settlements of fear in the urban and rural areas?
One of the indicators of quality of life is sense of security. Emotion is an interdisciplinary subject, at first it’s a psychological issue and also one of the main topics considered in Sociology and Geography. Also at the geographical and sociological theories the concept of sense of security is being discussed in social ecology topics. The studies which are relied on scientific method has been done based on principles and statistical methods about geographical environment and crime by “Katleh” and “Gari” for the first time in the first half of nineteenth century. Some sources has introduced “Kalteh” as a father of criminal statistics and as a founder of geographical school of villainy and it is said that his researches caused that crime know as a social phenomenon which is obedient two variants of time and place. Comparison of urban and rural communities is very important in terms of sense of security the people in these communities. One of the differences between urban and rural areas is environmental design. The conditions and amount of crime and also security feeling is also different among people by considering into the different in social and cultural structures among urban and rural regions and also the existing differences among urban and rural spaces.
The base of the work is based on three variations of public security feeling, security feeling in public and private spaces and the fear of all kinds of urban and rural spaces for examining security feeling in this research. Descriptive - analytical research method with emphasis on comparative methods is used to measure the sense of security. Required information and data were collected from library resources, also through survey methods by selecting 400 random samples in 2 cities and 10 villages in Koohdasht County. The difference between urban and rural regions is not meaningful from the viewpoint of public security feeling. It is also seen a meaningful difference in most cases and studied spaces in relation to the fear of urban and rural spaces. Also as much we move from semi-public spaces to the more public spaces, it is added to the fear of people that this issue has more suitable condition in rural regions than to the urban regions.
By considering into the difference which exists among urban and rural regions from the viewpoint of security feeling, consideration to some principles and instructions can be useful in improving the condition of security feeling and following it the security feeling of people in rural and urban regions. Consideration to the local connections and the promotion of the level of connections can be useful in urban regions in promoting the level of security feeling; because being familiar of people and having social interactions is a factor in increasing the security feeling in the society. The consideration to the physical design of cities of villages can also be useful in improving the conditions of security feeling and the comfort of people. Consideration into this issue is essential in physical designing:
- Promoting neighborhood ties, especially in urban areas through various social and cultural events in the neighborhoods of the municipal social assistance;
- Using of local monitoring in order to promote the level of security of people, especially in cities;
- Designing the passageway so that the ability of seeing and being seen is prepared for people;
- Using the suitable vegetation so that not to prevent the vision;
- Considering to the light of passageway especially in urban regions;
- Considering to the elimination and or decrease of hidden corners which is a place for the centralization of special people such as addicted people; and
- The establishment of small parks in semi-public condition for creating local connections.