The Analysis of Second Home Tourism Development on Physical Changes In Rural Areas (Case Study: Baraghan Rural District of Savojbolagh Township)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor of Geography and Rural Planning in University of Tehranand Member of Center of Excellence in Rural Planning

2 Msc in Geography and Tourism Planning - University of Tehran

3 Prossorof Geography and Rural Planning - University of Tehran and Member of Center of Excellence in Rural Planning

4 Chief of Executive andTechnical Group of Monitoring and Evaluation Office of Civil Affairs in Islamic Revolution Housing Foundation


Internationally, the most widely used term to describe the phenomenon of people owning or utilizing some sort of dwelling for recreational and secondary purposes is a second home. Throughout the world, many different terms are used to describe second home. However, even if differences in defining the phenomenon do occur, the similarities between the terms and definitions are obvious; So, we can declare that a second home is a dwelling used for temporal visits by the owner or someone else, and is not the user’s permanent place of residence. The core of second home definitions is that the owners of a second home must have their primary residence somewhere else, where they spend the majority of their time. Second homes tourism is one of the most important tourism patterns in rural areas. It can be both positive and negative effects on many aspects of rural areas, especially in the physical ones.
The aim of this article is to explore the second home development effects on the permanent resident’s life in rural areas. Despite different effects of these houses, it has focuses on physical effects that occur in the Baraghan district in Savojbolagh Township. There are a variety of physical and environmental problems, such as changes in physical structure of agricultural land, changes in agricultural land use to second houses for urban dwellers, landscape destruction, air and soil pollution, increases in traffic, but the second homes in rural area can have some positive effect as well. Such as improving of the cultural communication through networking and face to face communication and it develops the road and transportation facilities, this article is going to focuss on the physical changes due to development of second homes as an important aspect of the tourism affects. The methods which applied in the research are descriptive– analytical method. Research’s data has gathered by questionair which its validity examined by Professional team and reliability approved with Cronbach's alpha as 0.80. The research population was about 550 household which were living in the four villages in Baraghan rural district. Then the obtained data was analysised by the SPSS software. By applying Cochran formula, we selected 150 households as a sample randomly.
The research finding shows that the effects associated with second home tourism development predominantly are focus on changing in the structure and pattern of permanent residents housses such as architecture, components, equipment, facilities, spaces and rural livelihoods, as well as infrastructure services, indicating that environmental changes Widespread and uncontrolled manipulation of the natural environment and measures such as turning buildings into productive gardens, villas, changing the traditional structure housing residents, reduced access to land and housing residents. The results shows that effects associated with second home tourism development with a focus on five major domains of architecture, facilities, changing in rural livelihood spaces, infrastructure services, indicate that there is widespread and uncontrolled demolition of the natural environment. Also, it accompanied with changing the land use of horticultural land to houses for urban dwellers, changes in traditional patterns of rural houses, more limitation for rural residences to access to the land, applying the imported and different constructional matterials cused heterogeny in the rural landscape. Also, vanishing the work space in the rural tradition houses is the other subsequence of second house tourism development. The other Tourism, second homes, and leaving its negative aspects such as physical, the village becomes unstable. On the other hand, SHTD also creates negative affects, as it led to unsustainability of rural areas.
The reduction in negative effects and increasing in the positive affect cannot be happen without a comprehensive an effective rural tourism planning. It should include rural housing a physical development as well.
Anabestany, A. (2007). The formation process Factors affecting second homes in rural areas (about: West country village Mashhad). Human Geography Research, No. 74, pp. 117-103.
Anabestany, A. (2005). The physical effects on the development of second homes in rural settlements, villages, summer in the city of Mashhad, Journal of Rural Development, No. 4, pp. 149-166.
Amar, Teimour (1999). Analysis of case studies of rural houses in rural areas Khorgami roudbar city, geographical landscape Quarterly, Number 1.
Adyngton, Jim (1995). Ecological, recreational activities and tourism, translated by Ismail Kahrom, published by the Environmental Protection Agency.
Ardestani, M. (2003). Principles of rural tourism. Publications, Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance.
Baghiany, Hamid.raza, (2005). Analysis of the physical consequences- Space tourism second homes in rural areas (about: Mountain Lion-city district Taft), Master of Science Thesis, Tehran University.
Dadvar Khani, Fazileh; Nik Sirat, Masood (2007). Strategic planning in rural areas, desert hiking (Case study: Village Khranq - ARDEKAN city, Yazd Province), Journal of Rural Studies, No. 4, pp. 43.
Dadvar-Khani, Fazileh (2012). Participation of rural community and tourism development in Iran, Community Development, 43: 2, 259-277.
Firouznia,Ghadir; Roknodin Eftekhari, A.; Khani, M. (2009). Implications of Open Apartment Building (second homes) in rural areas: rural Tarrod city Damavand, Journal - Research Geographic Society of Iran, pp. 149-170.
Fredrik Rye, Johan (2011). Conflicts and contestations. Rural populations perspectives on the second homes phenomenon, Journal of Rural Studies 27, 263e274, Contents lists available at ScienceDirect.
Ghadiri, M.; Pazeky, M. (2001). Sustainable tourism (rural and tribal), Tehran University Press.
Hall, Michael; Diter Muler (2004). Tourism, Mobility and Second Homes, Clevedon, UK: Channel View Publications, 304, ISBN 1-873150-80-6 (pbk): £24.95; US$129.95. 1-873150-81-4 (hbk).
Hasani, Mehr; Sasede Sedigheh, Shahvran, Hamid (2007). Surprisingly rural tourism development with emphasis on the consequences of land use change, Journal of Human Geography, No. I, pp. 192-177.
Hoogendoorn, Gijsbe; Mellett, Gustav; Visser, Robynand (2005). Second Homes Tourism in Africa: Reflections on the South African Experience, Urban Forum, Vol. 16, No. 2-3.
Hoogendoorn, Gijsbert; Mellett, Robynand; Visser, Gustav (2005). Second HomesTourism in Africa: Reflections on the South African Experience, UrbanForum, Vol. 16, No. 2-3.
Hoogendoorn, Gijsbert; Mellett, Robyn; Visser, Gustav (2005). Second Homes Tourism in Africa: Reflections on the South African Experience Urban Forum, Vol. 16, Nos. 2-3, 115-154.
Jason. B.; Muller, D.K. (2003). Fritidsboendets I K varkenradet.
Marjavaara, Roger, (2007). Route to Destruction? Second Home Tourism in Small Island Communities, Department of Social and Economic Geography Umeå University Sweden, Island Studies Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, 27-46.
Marjavaara, R. (2008). Second Home Tourism the Root to Displacement in Sweden?, Doctoral Dissertation Department of Social and Economic Geography Umea University, Sweden.
Muller, D.K.; Hall, C.M.; Keen, D. (2004). Second Home Tourism Impact, Management. In C,M, Hall, and D,K., Muller (Eds) Tourism, Mobility and Second homes: Between Elite Landscape and common ground, 15- 32.
Müller, Dieter K. (2000). Second Home Tourim and Sustainable Development in North European Peripheries, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University, SE-901 87.
Nozari, Samira (2001). The role of second homes in rural economic development, land use change and Kurds, Masters Thesis, Tehran University.
Rezvani, M. (2003). The development of rural tourism, sustainable tourism approach, Tehran University Press.
Rezvani, Mohammad Reza; Akbarian, Ronizi, Mohammad Reza; Roknodin Eftekhari, A.; Badri, Ali (2009). Comparative analysis of the economic impact of tourism on rural areas second homes with daily tourism with sustainable development approach (by: city Shemiranat , Tehran province) rural Studies, No. IV, pp. 35-62.
Rezvani, Mohammad Reza (1993). The study and development of second homes in rural areas of north Tehran, Geographical Research, No. 45, pp. 59-73.
Roberts, L.; Hall, D. (2001). Rural Tourism and Recreation: Principles to Practice. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.
Sharply, R. (2002). T Rural Tourism and the Callaged of Tourism Diversification: The Cace of Cyprus, Tourism Management, Vol. 23, 233-344.
Sepahvand, F. (2007). The second home tourism in improving the quality of life of local residents (Item: Shemiranat city, Tehran), MS Thesis, Tehran University.
Sharply, Julia Richard (1980). Rural tourism, translation of mercy. Clerk of Fatima Nasir Mohammad Zadeh, Press Secretary.
Salehinasab, Zahra (1997). The effects on tourism and second homes in rural areas (Item: The city Qsran roudbar Shemiranat), Master of Science Thesis, Tehran University.
Wall and Smith (1982). Tourism Alternatives: Potential and Problems in the Development of Tourism, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Wolfe, R.I. (1951). Summer Cottagers in Ontario.Economic Geography 27 (1), 10-32.