Document Type : Research Paper
Associate Professor of Geography and Rural Planning in University of Tehranand Member of Center of Excellence in Rural Planning
Msc in Geography and Tourism Planning - University of Tehran
Prossorof Geography and Rural Planning - University of Tehran and Member of Center of Excellence in Rural Planning
Chief of Executive andTechnical Group of Monitoring and Evaluation Office of Civil Affairs in Islamic Revolution Housing Foundation
Internationally, the most widely used term to describe the phenomenon of people owning or utilizing some sort of dwelling for recreational and secondary purposes is a second home. Throughout the world, many different terms are used to describe second home. However, even if differences in defining the phenomenon do occur, the similarities between the terms and definitions are obvious; So, we can declare that a second home is a dwelling used for temporal visits by the owner or someone else, and is not the user’s permanent place of residence. The core of second home definitions is that the owners of a second home must have their primary residence somewhere else, where they spend the majority of their time. Second homes tourism is one of the most important tourism patterns in rural areas. It can be both positive and negative effects on many aspects of rural areas, especially in the physical ones.
The aim of this article is to explore the second home development effects on the permanent resident’s life in rural areas. Despite different effects of these houses, it has focuses on physical effects that occur in the Baraghan district in Savojbolagh Township. There are a variety of physical and environmental problems, such as changes in physical structure of agricultural land, changes in agricultural land use to second houses for urban dwellers, landscape destruction, air and soil pollution, increases in traffic, but the second homes in rural area can have some positive effect as well. Such as improving of the cultural communication through networking and face to face communication and it develops the road and transportation facilities, this article is going to focuss on the physical changes due to development of second homes as an important aspect of the tourism affects. The methods which applied in the research are descriptive– analytical method. Research’s data has gathered by questionair which its validity examined by Professional team and reliability approved with Cronbach's alpha as 0.80. The research population was about 550 household which were living in the four villages in Baraghan rural district. Then the obtained data was analysised by the SPSS software. By applying Cochran formula, we selected 150 households as a sample randomly.
The research finding shows that the effects associated with second home tourism development predominantly are focus on changing in the structure and pattern of permanent residents housses such as architecture, components, equipment, facilities, spaces and rural livelihoods, as well as infrastructure services, indicating that environmental changes Widespread and uncontrolled manipulation of the natural environment and measures such as turning buildings into productive gardens, villas, changing the traditional structure housing residents, reduced access to land and housing residents. The results shows that effects associated with second home tourism development with a focus on five major domains of architecture, facilities, changing in rural livelihood spaces, infrastructure services, indicate that there is widespread and uncontrolled demolition of the natural environment. Also, it accompanied with changing the land use of horticultural land to houses for urban dwellers, changes in traditional patterns of rural houses, more limitation for rural residences to access to the land, applying the imported and different constructional matterials cused heterogeny in the rural landscape. Also, vanishing the work space in the rural tradition houses is the other subsequence of second house tourism development. The other Tourism, second homes, and leaving its negative aspects such as physical, the village becomes unstable. On the other hand, SHTD also creates negative affects, as it led to unsustainability of rural areas.
The reduction in negative effects and increasing in the positive affect cannot be happen without a comprehensive an effective rural tourism planning. It should include rural housing a physical development as well.
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