Behavioral Attitude of Agricultural Enterprises to Environmental Pollution (Case Study:Kermanshah, Eslam Abad Gharb, Ilam, Ivan Gharb)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Msc Student in Rural Development and Extension – Razi University

2 Associate Professor in Department of Rural Development and Extension – Ilam University

3 Associate Professor in Department of Rural Development and Extension – Razi University


Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) bring a broad range of benefits beyond growth of national income, providing important opportunities for employment, and are a key source of an outlet for entrepreneurial creativity and ideas. However, it is estimated that SMEs are responsible around 60 percent of carbon dioxide emissions and 70 percent of all pollution globally. Therefore, having an examination on the behavior of companies, which is not usually pro-environmental, is essential. Hence, this paper intends to determine (i) the 5 facets of environmental attitude of SMEs’ owners and managers, (ii) the effect of 5 facets of environmental attitude on intention to pro-environmental performance, (iii) the effect of intention to pro-environmental performance on pro-environmental performance, and (iv) the effect of participating in classes of environmental education on pro-environmental performance.
In this paper the revised scale of New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) was used in order to determine the environmental attitude. The NEP includes 15 items; every three items focus on special facet of environmental attitude. The first facet relates to “limits to growth”, that considers limitation of demands and performance of people as a solution for environmental problems. The second facet points out anti-anthropocentrism. By the second facet, human is not dominant on his environment, and other beings have not been created for serving him. The third facet is “fragility of nature’s balance”. According to this facet, the balance of nature is a guarantor for life on the earth. The fourth facet is “rejection of exemptionalism”. By the fourth facet, human is the cause of eco-crises, therefore he must learn actions for controlling these crises. The fifth facet believes that “the possibility of an eco-crisis”. According to this facet, eco-crises shall be considered as serious threats to environment. Also for the assessment of intention to pro-environmental performance, pro-environmental performance, and participating in classes of environmental education we used a questionnaire developed in this research. The survey for this research study took place in the Kermanshah and Ilam provinces. The participants were a sample of 202 SMEs owners and managers that were selected using the stratified sampling method.
1. The mean of five facets of environmental attitude, environmental attitude, intention to pro-environmental performance and pro-environmental performance. The mean of limits to growth was 2.77; anti-anthropocentrism was 2.63, fragility of nature’s balance was 2.57, rejection of exemptionalism was 2.46, and the possibility of an eco-crisis was 2.78. Also the mean of environmental attitude was 2.65. In addition the mean of intention to pro-environmental performance was 3.22 that higher than 2.4. In contrast, pro-environmental performance was 2.37 which is lower than the middle value. 2. The results of correlation analysis. There was a positive and significant correlation between the 5 facets of environmental attitude and intention to pro-environmental performance. However, only the facets of fragility of nature’s balance and rejection of exemptionalism had a positive and significant correlation with pro-environmental performance. In addition, there was a positive and significant correlation between intention to pro-environmental performance and pro-environmental performance. 3. The results of regression analysis. The facets of limits to growth (t=3.9, sig=0.000) and the possibility of an eco-crisis (t=2.55, sig=0.001) could explain around 19% of the variance of intention to pro-environmental performance (F=24.16, sig=0.000). In other words, limits to growth and the possibility of an eco-crisis would make a significant contribution to the regression model. However, limits to growth had a stronger preference for intention to pro-environmental performance (β=0.403). Also intention to pro-environmental performance could explain 0.07% of the variance of pro-environmental performance. In fact, the relationship between these two variables was positive. Since the average of pro-environmental performance was low (2.37), we would believe that participation in environmental education classes could improve the pro-environmental performance of SMEs owners and managers. In this respect, the correlation analysis for participating in classes of environmental education and pro-environmental performance revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between them. Also the result of multiple regression analyses of participating in classes of environmental education and intention to pro-environmental performance with pro-environmental performance showed that these two variables can explain about 12% of all variance of pro-environmental performance. Conclusion. The mean of 5 facets of environmental attitude of SMEs owners and managers was more than the middle value. Also, the mean of intention to pro-environmental performance was higher than 2.4, but the mean of pro-environmental performance for the majority of SMEs owners and managers were lower than 2.4. In addition, 19% of the variance of pro-environmental performance was explained by the facets of limits to growth and the possibility of an eco-crisis, whereas the remaining 81% of the effective factors could not be clarified. Factors such as lack of rules and regulations, domination of material attitudes on public interests, incomprehension of environmental threats, etc. may be considered as main causes for the low level of pro-environmental performance among SMEs owners and managers.
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