A Study of Barriers and Suitable Solution in Development of Rural Household Jobs from the Perspective of Rural Women and Expert in the City of West Islamabad

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.A., Agricultural Extension and Education, College of Agriculture, Extension and Rural Development Department, Razi University, Kermanshah

2 Associate Prof. and Member of Faculty of Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Extension and Rural, Development Dep., Razi University, Kermanshah

3 Assistant Prof. and Member of Faculty of Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Extension and Rural Development Dep., Razi University, Kermanshah


Extended Abstract
Some visulizers believed that, home business opportunities, caused self
employment, thought removing deficiency and fulfillment of local requirement in an
Economic and remove difficulties for perdurable development. These jobs
considered as Essential and vital Economic activities in developing countries and
from making job opportunity and renovation in the field of products and services,
lead to diversity and change ability in every countries society and Economy and
combine with two specific characteristics include, low percapita cost and immediate
yield could utilize as sufficient alternative to reduce unemployment and for youth,
Accommodate point to start up individual jobs, because starting it up compare to
other businesses, because of Diversity in products and services distribution or
diversity implaces and moments of distribution, have lost of adherent and big
number of governments tried to expand and start up it, among diversity of people
specially women, because in recent world, intend to women role in economic and 
social development process in unavoidable able in each society and global arena,
making job opportunity by furnishing employment for manpower specially women
are the most essential program. Since proportion of villager population compare
whole countries population are reduced in most of world countries in most
developing countries, this rate is under 10 percent. Despite to subjects related to
urbanism nature development in whole worlds, the main cause of this reduction is
restriction the capacity of villager area productivity (specially in agricultural
domains). By industrialization and scientific agriculture in countries villager
production advantage, increases, consequently, it required less number manpower,
that automatically it results unemployment and reduces in villagers income. Activate
rural, could help, social security and reduce big number of disagree able. Even
growth reverse Emigration in Iran. Consequently, in rural area on of basic
employment strategies, movement toward nonagricultural industries specially house
business. Accommodate field to active women and girls are available by house
business. Because most deprived people are villagers if reducing program of poverty
want to be successful, must focus on rural people.
In one hand poverty has connection with sexuality and poverty is post rural one of
yesterday. They are deprived from all facilities, to improve mending situation from
quality and quantity. These rural female help in families subsistence, because in
most cases, husband income couldn't support life expenses and farming and retiary
income which has been done by rural women, sometimes are more than their
husbands. Accordingly, we should certainly planning manpower in Agriculture field
specifically rural women and female, in this case because businesses have high
situation, because this jobs have high information to our culture and based on
different reason, such as historical background of master- trainee activities, women
high portion in national economy and enhancing of production in this group of
society it seems that advocating this jobs could considerably impressionable and
expanding this job opportunities in rural area because of presence and social relation 
and high cooperation attempt, responsibility, obligation and engagement to
progression in rural people, could be more successful from urban area.
These type of businesses have significant role in wealth and economic growth and
development of community’s social capital. There fore the purpose of this applied
research was to investigate rural women and expert's views on barriers and suitable
solution of developing household jobs with descriptive survey methodology in 2011.
Statistical population was 15000 rural women and 50 experts of rural household
jobs. Sampling method was proportional stratified random sample and based on
Morgan (n=375) rural women were selected and 50 expert selected based on case
study. Validity of the instrument were measured (face validity) by a panel of expert,
and reliability were measured by Cranach's alpha coefficient for each the obstacles
to development of household jobs such as: family, personal, economic,
governmental and personality. Calculated respectively (0.87, 0.89, 0.76, 0.88, 0.87),
which indicates the suitability of the instrument. Data analysis constructed by
(SPSS) software showed that the most important barriers to the development of
household jobs from the perspective of rural woman were: personal barriers,
interpersonal, economical, family and governmental barriers, and from the experts’
view the barriers were respectively: family, individual, personal, governmental and
economical barriers. The correlation study showed positive and significant
relationship between membership in the organization and development of household
jobs, level of women education with an error probability of .01, and significant
relationship between families, personal, economic, governmental, personality and
development of household jobs with an error probability of 0.1. While there were no
significant correlation between age & marital status, having or not having a role
model, success or failure of role mole. Having personal experience in the field of
household jobs and development of household jobs.