Analysis Situation Food Security and Factors Affecting Thereon in the Rural Society City of Divandarreh

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate in Extension Agriculture, University of Tehran

2 Associated Prof. in Management and Extension Agriculture, University of Tehran

3 Assistant Prof. in Management and Extension Agriculture, University of Tehran


Extended Abstract
Food insecurity has been and still is an important concern for many nations around
the world. In fact, ameliorating food insecurity and hunger is one of the eight
Millennium Development Goals, which has been adopted by 189 States in
September 2000 Millions of dollars have been dispersed by governments, donors,
international aid agencies, and multi-lateral development bodies in the developing
countries including Ethiopia to address the problem of food insecurity and hunger.
Despite the many programs and projects on food security, there are still millions of
food insecure people around the world with many of them living in developing
countries particularly in Africa. Cycles of food insecurity were common in India
prior to the green revolution era in the 1970s. The revolution laid the foundation for
food security in India through dramatic increases in food production. Reducing food
insecurity continues to be a major public policy challenge in developing countries.
Access to adequate food and nutrition and optimal health has been the main axes of
development also is considered as grounds of the country's future generation.
Because in the recent decades the issue of nutritional has been dimension, with the
increasing population and the need for further expansion of communities due to
human food supply has different approaches for the experts and scientists solve this
problem. Without doubt, among the priorities of each country's development goals, 
achieving food security is great importance. Therefore, investigation of factors that
impact on food security is of particular importance. Analysis Situation food security
and factors affecting Thereon in the rural Society city Divandarreh. The statistical
population of this research was consisted of all Married women in case study
(N=15421). Using Cochran's sampling formula, 213 women were selected as a
sample (n=213). The main instrument in this study was questionnaire which its
validity was confirmed by the panel of food security experts and faculty members of
department management and agricultural development in university of Tehran and
its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's Alpha coefficient and composite
reliability. Data were analyzed by SPSSWin18 and LISREL8.54 software in two
parts of descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicate improper food
security and nutritional status among rural households. Correlation analysis results
shown that Food security significantly correlated with the Household income,
member of family, number of employed household, Location Distance to city,
amount of agricultural and horticultural land and Education of mother, Results of the
regression analysis showed that three variables consisting Household income,
Education of mother and Combined production system were explaining 62.1 percent
of dependent variable (Food Security) variances changes.
Almost 1 billion people worldwide are undernourished, many more suffer from
micronutrient deficiencies, and the absolute numbers tend to increase further,
especially in Sub-Saharan Africa Recent food price hikes have contributed to greater
public awareness of hunger related problems, also resulting in new international
commitments invest in developing country agriculture Obviously, agricultural
development is crucial for reducing hunger and poverty in rural areas, but nonagricultural
growth can be important as well Specifically for African countries, with
strong population growth and increasingly limited agricultural resources, the
potential role of the rural off-farm sector deserves particular consideration.
Smallholder farm households usually maintain a portfolio of income sources, with
off-farm income being a major component but often a clear policy strategy to
promote the off-farm sector is lacking. In the available literature, considerable
attention has been given to the poverty implications of off-farm income in
developing countries Nutrition impacts might be positive, because off-farm income
contributes to higher household income and therefore better access to food. But the
impacts might also be negative, at least when controlling for total household income,
as working off the farm could potentially reduce household food availability due to
the competition for family labor between farm and off-farm work. The success of 
the green revolution technologies during the 1970s and 1980s is attributed to a
technology model together with adoption of concurrent micro and macro-economics
models. The micro or farm economics governed the use of inputs such as land,
cultivars, labor, machinery, and chemicals, balanced against profits from crop
yields. The macro-economics ensured better prices to farmers and access to inputs
and markets. In addition to rising demand for food resulting from increasing
population and economic growth, increased risks of food insecurity are foreseen
from: an estimated rising global energy demand of 50% to 2030.