A case study of rural migrants Yanqaq functions Galikesh of Golestan province

Document Type : Research Paper



Protect and preserve the environment like forest ecosystems are a very important public duty. And being concerned about the people forced to migrate and resettle to protect valuable ecosystems is necessary. So finding the ways that can Put reasonable and efficient both of these categories together, is only possible through the systematic researchs. In recent years, many international requirements and native protests from the environmental activists And higher knowledge of the people and the governments, has forced the governments to more pay attention to forest ecosystems. In this context, the main challenge that governments are always faced with is the choose between current needs and economic prosperity and gaining more popularity and giving priority to the protection and maintenance of natural resources and the environment for future generations.
One of the main causes of deforestation is the forest villagers that lived in the forest for many years and use trees for building, fuel and livestock grazing. Native, traditional and local forest exploitation of the natural resources in forest ecosystems in recent decades, gradually has been changed to the mode of industrial use case, and has become non - standard.
In 1986 Studies are began for regulate findings and rules to out rural households from forests and resettle them in new regions. In addition, its operations began in 1990. Failure to cooperate foresters, social, economic and cultural problems in previous migrated shortage of habitable lands, lack of funds allocated, inconsistencies in the agencies, lack sufficient clarity of rules and regulations, Two contrasting economic perspective (using wood, livestock and employment) and environmental use of forests among policymakers and ... shows that more careful Researches and planning is necessary. Although the governments were bound to exit all forest villagers until 2010, out of the woods and migrate them to other zones but so far (2014) because of that problems that work is not done.
The main mechanism of the development process improvement projects mades in the studies about Actions that have already taken place and the exposure to a variety of conditions have shown their strengths and weaknesses. In a country like Iran, where every year hundreds of small and large development projects are carried out; study of previous designs is necessary. To be repeated strengths and avoid weaknesses of that projects.
Because of forest conservation in 1992, four adjacent villages in the forest of outskirt of Galykesh city in Golestan province (Iran) about the 50 rural households exited and were resettled in Yanqaq village. Governments gave every family two acres (20000 m2) of farming land (approximately 30% of previous asset) and a house 450 square meters area instead of their farming lands and homes in forest.
This study has the following these purposes. First: describe the significant social changes resulting from migration and resettlement, and its positive and negative effects. Second: Identifying the types and causes of social discontent has emerged because of the impact of this kind of development and Third: Solution to improve the situation and resolve possible defects in future similar projects.
This research is formed in the framework of sustainable development outlook and one of its most important branches; social empowerment and using the social impact assessment (SIA) approach to find out most important beneficial and harmful social impacts in that migration and Resettlement .
Firstly, social, economic, cultural and political effects has been identified and after consultation with experts in social science and ecology, economic impact specified as most important impact of the project and selected to comprehensive review. Next step was a qualitative research study (Grounded theory method) to descript resettlement people attitudes about this project and its economical problems.
The results show that the infrastructure services (like drinking water, safe house, school, hospital, the fire department, police etc) are the most important factor to empowering the resettlement people. And family's new income is relatively sufficient. However, the government's failure to adhere to their promises, particularly on the establish of industrial livestock, rural cooperatives and loss of self-sufficiency and lack of planning for the employment of second-generation have inconvenienced them.
The problems like Lack of participatory management of resettlement, lack of adequate training for entering a new lifestyle and not a Continuous monitoring of resettlement rural people has created "Horror suspense" sense in Newcomers to new location. That sense as the central category can Interpret most Actions of The first generation Resettlement rural people.
In addition, at the end of the study, by using the discovered central category, Suggestions are presented for better implementation of similar projects.


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