Identify Effective Factors in Formation of Small and Medium Enterprise Oriented Rural tourism, Case Study Kan of County; Tehran

Document Type : Research Paper



Identify Effective Factors in Formation of Small and Medium Enterprise Oriented Rural tourism, Case Study Kan of County; Tehran
Karami benmaran Z.* Khosravi pour B.** Ghanian M. ***
Baradaran M.****
Today, rural tourism plays an important role as a productive factor and new sources of employment and income in rural communities. Over the past decades rural areas in many countries have faced the pressures of economic transition. Traditionally, strong primary industries such as fishing, agriculture, and forestry have declined dramatically, and many places have viewed tourism and related industries as replacements for traditional rural livelihoods. Governments can play active roles in tourism. In short the literature suggests rural tourism development policy approaches require: regeneration/revitalization, horizontal and vertical integration, interdependence, stewardship/sustainability, mediation, cataclysm, service and welfare provisions, spatiality awareness, intra and inter regional complementariness, opportunism, realism and quality Rural Tourism encompasses a huge range of activities, natural or manmade attractions, amenities and facilities, transportation, marketing and information systems. Tourism development requires attractions, promotion, infrastructure and services and hospitality rural tourism demand is often difficult to influence and manage. Rural tourism- based businesses are smaller and newer than other forms of economic activity in rural areas. They are located in remote areas, with low capital base, and function with low- level skills and little tourism experience and development of tourism business and infrastructure would stimulate economics, small businesses and provide rural population with alternative income. Rural tourism is very diverse and fragmented in terms of operational structures, activities, markets and operating environments. Rural economies are limited by two factors; they are based on agricultural production and in many developed countries they are reliant on government policies. To the fast growing and profitable small and medium businesses belongs rural tourism which gives an incentive to work, to preserve and rationally use local resources, cultural and historical heritage. Most rural tourism businesses are small, owner-operated, and act as a second income, so they generally are not earning a lot of money. This income is still important however; as it increases the economic viability of businesses on-and-off the farm rural tourism is a growth industry and can be accredited to changes in lifestyle, higher levels of disposable income, car ownership and second holiday/ weekend break markets. Hence, this is important to identifying factors that affect it. This survey was accomplished in the rural’s sector of Kan. A survey was performed of rural villages sooleghan (Sangan noa, Sangan Bala, Sangan Paeen, Sangan Vasat, Bagh Dareye Sangan, Vardij, Talun, Kigah, Varish, Imam Zadeh Davud, Keshar Sofla, Keshar Oliya, Rendane and Sooleghan) with the population 2767 patients (708 households). Because of a relatively high number of households, more natural attractions and easy access for tourists to these areas 7 Villages (Sooleghan, Vardij, Sangan Paeen, Keshar Oliya , Rendan, Imam Zadeh Davood and Kigah) were selected for this study.
Was used questionnaire for data collection and data analysis whit SPSS software. Results showed that the natural attractions and places of pilgrimage was important reason to visit the rural. Among the positive points that had were a huge impact on tourism in the region, low part of the rural to Tehran, the nature of the pristine and beautiful natural attractions in the area, a few number of small and medium size enterprise tourism oriented in the region and religious at the over hand the unwillingness of young people to work in agriculture sector, offered appropriate credit facilities from government and quiet facilities for the tourists were the least impact on tourism activities. Seasonal tourism in the region, inadequate systems of information and advertising in tourism, the need for large capital for small and medium size enterprises tourism oriented, lack of proper roads and communication routes, have been introduced as the most important shortcomings in the creation and expansion of small and medium size enterprises tourism. little experience and skill in relation to tourism business, tourism’s markets of neighboring towns, strict and restrictive taxes and the state laws, supervision and strict control over the activities of firms and dealers and agricultural products and handicrafts of intermediaries were not important barriers to development of tourism activity. Residents of perspective education was substantial’s role of government to improve the tourism activity and next in rating as its role in the development of the tourism business was the construction of roads and routes, improve the mobile services, and introducing region as a one of the tourism axis. Final priorities of the government's role were about the tourism enterprises pay the low loans and credits, supporting rural initiatives and new ideas related to tourism business, grant facilities to the tourists to travel during the recession in tourism and training courses for rural people who are willing to work in the tourism sector. Among the extracted factors in factor analysis test, context– Infrastructure factor whit the special value 5/78, was recognized the most effective factor in the creation and expansion of economic activities oriented tourism enterprises. Also was observed Positive correlation among the factors detected. At the end of on the basis of result have been suggested some strategy and solution to improve and develop rural tourism activity and small and medium size enterprises.
Key Word: Tourism, Rural, Small and Medium Enterprise, Factors, Kan of County


امین‌‌آقایی، مهرناز، 1388، بررسیعواملمؤثربرعملکردصنایعکوچکازدیدگاه کارشناسان توسعة‌‌ روستایی، فصلنامة‌‌ روستا و توسعه، 11(4)، صص. 146-125.
بزرگ‌نیا، ابراهیم، 1386،نقشصنایعکوچکدرتوسعة‌‌ روستایی، نشریة‌‌ خبری روابط عمومی وزارت جهاد کشاورزی، صص. 17-16.
بیات، ناصر و رستگار، ابراهیم، 1390، بررسیاثراتزیست‌محیطیگردشگریروستاییازدیدگاهتوسعة‌‌ پایدار:مطالعة‌‌ موردیروستایسولقانشهرستان تهران، مجموعه مقالات دومین همایش ملی توسعة‌‌ پایدار روستایی، تیرماه، همدان، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، 21 ص.
خیاطی، مهدی، 1382، توریسمروستاییو تأثیر آنبر جوامعروستاییتایلند، ماهنامة‌‌ اقتصادی-اجتماعی جهاد کشاورزی، 14(73)، صص. 56-43.
رحیمی، عباس، 1383، تبیینصنایعتبدیلیوتکمیلیبخشکشاورزیوصنایعروستایی، نشر جامعه‌‌‌نگر، تهران.
شایان، حمید و شاهی اردبیلی، حکمت، 1386، نقش صنایع روستایی در توزیع بهینة‌‌ درآمد: مطالعة‌‌ موردی بخش مرکزی شهرستان مشهد، فصلنامة‌‌ روستا و توسعه، 2(10)، صص. 212-196.
غلامی روچی، محمدنقی، میرمحمد صادقی، جواد و دهقانی، عباسعلی، 1384، تحلیلی بر عوامل مؤثر بر بهره‌‌‌وری کل صنایع روستایی تحت پوشش جهاد کشاورزی استان اصفهان، مجلة‌‌ علوم و فنون کشاورزی، 9(1)، صص. 71-61.
غنیان، منصور، خانی، فضیله و بقایی، لیلا، 1390، ارزیابی فضای کارآفرینی در گردشگری روستایی (مطالعة‌‌ موردی: منطقة‌‌ اورامان)، فصلنامة‌‌ پژوهش‌‌های روستایی، 2(3)، صص. 123-99.
قبادی، پرستو، پاپ‌زن، عبدالحمید، زرافشانی، کیومرث و گراوندی، شهپر، 1389، مشکلاتومحدودیت‌هایگردشگریروستایی بااستفادهازنظریة‌‌ بنیانی (مورد: روستایحریر،استانکرمانشاه)، فصلنامة‌‌ پژوهش‌‌های روستایی، 1(3)، صص. 52-25.
قهرمانی، نسرین، 1387، بررسی اثرات گردشگری روستایی در نواحی روستایی دهستان سولقان، پایان‌نامة‌‌ کارشناسی ارشد دانشکدة‌‌ جغرافیای دانشگاه تهران، 195ص.
مؤمنی، فرشاد، یوسفی، محمدقلی و مبارک، اصغر، 1389، بررسیعواملتعیین‌کنندة‌‌ رشدبهره‌‌‌وریوفقر درمناطقروستاییایران، فصلنامة‌‌ پژوهش‌‌های روستایی، 1(1)، صص. 120-99.
موسایی، میثم، 1390، مبانی اقتصاد توریسم، انتشارات مهکامه، تهران، 150 ص.
میرکتولی، جعفر و مصدق، راضیه، 1389، بررسیوضعیتگردشگریروستاییونقشآندررونقصنایع‌دستی مورددهستاناسترآبادجنوبی،شهرستانگرگان، مطالعات و پژوهش‌‌های شهری و منطقه‌‌‌ای، (2)7، صص. 154-137.
Abor, J. and Quartey, P., 2010, Issues in SME Development in Ghana and South Africa, International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 39, PP. 218-228.
Copp, C.B. and lvy, R.L., 2001, Networking Trends to Small Tourism Businesses in Posocialist Slovakia, Journal of Small Business Development, 39(4), PP. 345- 353.
Eruera, A., 2008, Rural Tourism Development in the Eastern Hokianga Area, A thesis submitted to the Auckland University of Technology, PP. 134.
Levy M., Powell P. and Worrall L., 1987, Strategic Intent and E-Business in SMEs: Enablers and Inhibitors, Information Resources Management Journal, 18 (5), PP. 1-20.
Radas, S. and Bozic, L., 2009, The Antecedents of SME Innovativeness in Anemogram in Transition Economy, Technovation, 29, PP. 438–450.
Ramanauskiene, J., Gargasas, A., Ramanauska, J., 2006, Marketing Solution In Rural Tourism Development In Lithuania, Economical Journal, 7(74), PP. 38-51.
Urbanoa, D., Toledanoa, N. and Ribeirob, D., 2010, Support Policy for the Tourism Business: A comparative case study in Spain, 30(1), PP. 119–131.
Valentinov, V. and Baum, S., 2008, The Institutional Economics of Rural Development: Beyond Market Facture, Journal of center European Agriculture, 9(3), PP. 457-462.
Weaver, D. & Fennell, D.A., 1997, The Vacation Farm Sector in Saskatchewan: A profile of operations, Tourism Management, 18(6), PP. 357-365.
Refrence in persian
Amin Aghaee, Mahnaz, 2009, Survey of Viewpoint’s Experts about Effective Factors in Function of Small Industry, Journal of Rural and Development, 11(4), PP. 125-146.
Bayat, Nasser and Rastegar, Ebrahim, 2011, Survey of Environmental Effects from the Perspective of Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism: A case study of Tehran city sooleghan village, Proceedings of the National Conference for Sustainable Rural Development, July, Hamedan Bou Ali Sina University.
Bozorgnia, Ebrahim, 2007, The Role of Small Industry in Rural Development, The news magazine The Public Relations Department of Agriculture, PP. 16-27.
Ghahramani, Nasrin, 2008, Survey Effects of Rural Tourism in Rural Villages in Sooleghan, M.Sc. thesis, Department of Geography, Tehran University.
Ghanian, Mansour, 2011, Determine the Entrepreneurs in Rural Tourism (Case study: the Uraman), Problems and limitation associated of rural tourism using foundation Theory (Item: Harir Village, Kermanshah Province), Journal of Rural research, 2(3), PP. 99-123.
Ghobadi, Parastou, Papzan, Abdolhamid and ZarAfshani Qmars, 2010, Problems and Limitation Associated of Rural Tourism using Foundation Theory (Item: Harir Village, Kermanshah Province), Journal of Rural Research, 1(3), PP. 25-52.
Gholami, Mohammad T., Sadeghi, Javad and Dehghani, Abas, A., 2005, Analysis of Factors Affecting the Productivity of Rural Industries Covered by the Province of Agricultural, Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 9(1), PP. 61-71.
Khayati, Mehdi, 2003, Rural Tourism and It’s Effect on Rural Societies, Monthly magazine Agricultural of socioeconomic, 14(73), PP. 43-56.
Mirkatouli, Jafar and Mosadegh, Raziyeh, 2010, Survey of Situation of Rural Tourism and Its Role in the Development Handicrafts of South Astar Abad Village, City of Gorgan, Journal of Urban and regional studies, 2(7), PP. 137-154.
Moameni, Farshad, Yousefi, Mohammad Gh. and Mobarak, Asghar, 2010, Investigate the Determinants of Productivity Growth and Poverty in Rural Areas in Iran, Journal of Rural Research, 1(1), PP. 99-120.
Mousaee, Meysam, 2011, Principles of Tourism Economics, Published by Mahkameh, Tehran, P. 150.
Rahimi, Abbas, 2004, Explanation of Additional Industries and Agricultural Sectors and Rural Industries, Published by Nashre Jamee Negar, Tehran.
Shayan, Hamid and Shahi Ardebili, Hekmat, 2007, Role of Rural Industries in the Optimal Distribution of Income: A case study of the central city of Mashhad, Journal of Rural Development, 2(10): PP. 196-212.