Measure of social welfare the households in rural areas Case study Township Zahak

Document Type : Research Paper


1 University of Isfahan

2 University of Sistan and Baluchestan- Zahedan


1- Introduction
Supply of social welfare including the most important goals of any economic system and providing suitable conditions for life of all segments of society is considered the main task of economic actors and authorities. Thus, the change in social welfare including the areas of assessment is the economic systems. Changes in welfare and living conditions in human settlements, especially in deprived and marginalized areas that in terms of the level of welfare and development indicators faced with a variety of challenges and problems, makes it essential more than any other issue study and measure social welfare.
Study and measurement of social welfare in order to monitor the policies and programs of welfare and social security is a basic necessity and requirement. Because based on its findings, decision makers with an understanding of the forces that act within rural settlements and governments, are better able to develop interaction and policies that result in improvability, lived and stability be in these areas. Hence the present study aimed to measurement the social welfare in rural areas of Township Zahak (Sistan and Baluchestan province) located in the South East of Iran has tried to analyze the social welfare indicators.

2- Methodology
The research method is descriptive- analytical survey, based on a completing the questionnaires. The population of the study are all households living in rural areas of Township Zahak, that based on 1390 the census has been population of 61,090 people and 14,709 rural households.
In this study were selected 30 villages as research sample. Method of sampling were using the Cochrane method that were selected the number of 329 heads of household as the samples. Research indicators and variables are included: employment and income, housing, health and medical, health, leisure, participation, education, access and of life satisfaction. Collected data through statistical methods are processed and analyzed by SPSS software.

3- Findings and Discussion
In order to study thelevel of social welfare in the villages studied were the significance level of less than 0.05 and was approved from the statistical viewpoint and the level of social welfare in terms of all the indicators of the economic and social dimensions, with an average value of 2.76 was measured below average and poor.
Since the main livelihood of the villagers is based on agriculture and subdivision and with the emergence of long droughts in the past, including the past 15 years (1998-2013) and after the closure of the border (2005 -2011) rural social welfare state is damaged greatly.
However have been neglected an alternative livelihoods for the villagers. Because their livelihoods (agriculture, livestock, fishing and handicrafts) is damaged seriously.
Also access to welfare services, participation in rural development is low and weak. In addition because of weather and natural problems, lack of adequate access to health care is an unfavorable villagers health conditions
According to the statistical results indicators of "health", "education" and "housing" are sequentially ranked first to third and indicators "leisure", "life satisfaction" and "income and employment" have taken place in the final ranking. In the villages studied, because of relative access to clean drinking water, nutrition, physical and mental health of relative household, health indicators have taken place in the first rank. But in connection with indicators with lowest ranking are noteworthy the lack of infrastructure and recreational facilities and Pleasant entertainment, the basic weakness of the rural economy in the region and unfavorable climate (which has a lot of negative consequences) and the inadequate support from the government to diversify the rural economy.
The village of "Qala No" with the mean (3.32), the highest and village "Deh Mastikhoon" with the mean (1.92) have the lowest rates of social welfare.

4- Conclusions
The results indicate that the level of social welfare in the villages studied, in terms of all the the indicators studied is below average and poor. This indicates that the welfare state the region especially in terms of basic indicators of employment, income and access has not been considered necessary and revision of in planning and policy making of welfare is necessary. Status welfare villages in the region over all challenged in the fields of life satisfaction, income, employment and leisure. But welfare status of sample villages in relation to indicators of health, education, housing, is a little better. However, the health of rural people is threatened because of unfavorable climatic conditions, water fluctuations and droughts, resulting in a weakness economic foundation.
Study of the social welfare in each of the villages in the sample indicated that there were significant differences. Village of “Qala No”, because having tourist attraction and better economic opportunities have most level of welfare and the village “Deh Mastikhoon”, have the lowest social welfare.


Main Subjects

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