Title (English): Factors motivating rural youth of Gonbad- e- Kavous to choose agricultural occupations

Document Type : Research Paper



Abstract (English):
A study of Iran economic sectors' function shows the suitable and exceptional situation of agricultural sector in national economy ( Shahabadi, 2009:126). On the other side, human resources is an important and effective factor in agricultural development while rural youth are vast majority of rural population and work forces (Shahbazi, 2005, 551). Hence, provision of condition to lead this active human force on agriculture sector in addition to job creation, can be an important factor in agricultural sustainability and economic growth of rural areas.
Therefore, the main issue in development is that how rural youth can be empowered and join to agricultural activities and being efficient in the process of economic development? These are basic questions that governments are encountering with them. The rural areas of Gonbad-e-Kavous county having large and productive farmlands and educated rural youth can play an important role in agricultural development provided by empowering the youth people. For this reason, we decided to investigate factors motivating rural youth to choose agricultural occupations.

This applied and descriptive- correlational study conducted in 2th half 2011. Survey research method was used in this study. The statistic population of the study was consisted 39057 rural youth in age group of 15- 24 years from Gonbad-e-Kavous County. Based on Cochran's formula, a sample consisting 347 youth was selected for the study. Proportional stratified random sampling method was used for data collecting. The study area was consisted of two section, viz. Markazi and Dashlibroon, and six rural districts. The instrument of the study was a researchers' made questionnaire with three separated parts, i.e. personal and occupational characteristics, youth's motivation in relation with agricultural vocations, and barriers to agricultural occupations in rural areas. Content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by academy stuff of department of agricultural management and development in Tehran University. For reliability of the instrument, the Cronbach alpha of .72 and .90 achieved for motivation and rural areas problems scale, respectively. SPSS ver.19 software was used for data analysis.
Based on the results, only 14.4% of youth were low interested towards agricultural occupations and at this time 51% of them tend to establish agricultural occupation.
Half of them stated that their reluctance was related to lack of facilities and up to date technical and financial supports of agricultural sector by government organization. In the study of factors affecting motive for selecting agricultural vocations, rural youth of Gonbad-e-Kavous stated that application of useful solutions in confronting problems, and ability to do long term farming works are the most important factors of increasing the motive. In rural youth viewpoint, poor financial facilities, poor awareness of bureau employees about real needs of farmers were ranked as the most important problems of agricultural occupation. Demurger et al. (2010) showed that lack of support of government and society, hardship and low profitability of agricultural activities are of main disadvantages of these occupations. While Aitken (2010:1) showed some instances of business started up by low resource rural youth; in viewpoint of youth, the main advantages of these occupations were job creation and incomer generation. Demurger et al. (2010) also showed that better off rural households perceived agricultural employments as a good income sources. In our study, the result of correlation analysis showed that there was significant relationship between farming experiences, tendency to employment in agriculture sector, irrigated land ownership, characteristics of entrepreneurial personality, and motivation rate to select agricultural vocations. This result confirmed by several previous studies (Malloryand Sommer, 1986; Talbert and Balschweid, 2004; Sadighi, 2005; Eskandari and Dinpanah, 2006; Poursina et al., 2010; and Aghasizadeh, 1996).
The result of t-test showed that there was a significant difference between occupation situation, tendency to launch agricultural vocation, having skill or expertise, and rural youth motivation to select agricultural occupations. Multiple regression analysis also revealed that pragmatis , seeking ‌to‌ challenge, and tolerance ‌of‌ ambiguity. were main determinants of youth's motives to choose agricultural employments. Webster et al. (2008) found that youth entered agricultural training program because of their strong belief in the future of farming and to generate additional.

Considering the findings of the study the following recommendations is presented to promote motives of rural youth of Gonbad-e Kavous for entering in agriculture sector.
Promotion of working culture for own and employment in non-waged sector by establishing self employment centers in rural areas having facilities such as training courses, producing workshops, booth of the commodity selling and technical services.
Conducting training courses for rural youth who have higher entrepreneurial spirits and recognizing their interested activities to pay them special agricultural credits to create effective occupations in this sector.


آقاسی‌زاده، فتح‌اله، 1375، نگرش جوانان روستایی نسبت به کشاورزی و سنجش گرایش های شغلی آنان در منطقة بالاتجن قائم شهر و تبیین رسالت آموزشی ترویج، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، گروه ترویج و آموزش، تهران.
ازکیا، مصطفی، 1387، مقدمه‌ای بر جامعه‌شناسی توسعة روستایی،انتشارات اطلاعات، صص. 325-321.
اسکندری، جمشید و دین‌پناه، غلامرضا، 1385، بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر ایجاد انگیزه جهت اشتغال جوانان روستایی در فعالیت کشاورزی در استان اصفهان، مجلة جهاد (ترویج کشاورزی و توسعة روستایی)، 270، صص. 150-161.
پورسینا مهرناز، چیذری محمد، فرج‌اله حسینی سیدجمال، طهماسبی مریم، 1389،عوامل مؤثر بر میزان انگیزة جوانان روستایی برای اشتغال به حرفة کشاورزی: مطالعة موردی روستاهای شهرستان کلاردشت، فصلنامة روستا و توسعه، سال سیزدهم، شمارة 3،31-49.
دانش‌مهر حسین، احمدرش رشید، 1388، بررسی نگرش‌های اجتماعی روستاییان نسبت به مشارکت اجتماعی (مطالعة موردی: روستای دشه از توابع شهرستان پاوه)، توسعة روستایی،شمارة 1(36)، صص. 156-129.
شاه‌آبادی، ابوالفضل، 1388، منابع رشد بخش کشاورزی ایران طی سال‌های 1342 تا 1385، فصلنامة روستا و توسعه، سال دوازدهم، شمارة 4، صص. 125-147.
شعبانعلی فمی حسین، 1388، اصول ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام‌نور، چاپ پنجم، تهران، صص. 136-135.
شهابی سیامک، 1385، تحلیل عوامل موثر بر ارزش های خانوادگی جوانانروستایی: مطالعة موردی استان اصفهان،فصلنامة روستا و توسعه، سال نهم، شمارة 3، صص. 202-171.
شهبازی، اسماعیل، 1384، توسعه و ترویج روستایی، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ص. 622.
قدیری، ‌محمد، ‌1383، عوامل مؤثر بر نگرش جوانان روستایی شهرستان اصفهان در زمینة اشتغال در فعالیت‌های کشاورزی، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد توسعة روستایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران.
موحدیان عطارمحمد، 1386، مصاحبة مطبوعاتی رئیس سازمان نظام مهندسی کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کشور، فصلنامة نظام مهندسی کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، سال 4، شمارة 16، صص. 9-8.
هاشمی سیدسعید، مهرابی علی‌اکبر، ایمنی، سیاوش و نجاحی، اکبر، 1390، توسعة روستایی با تأکید بر اشتغال و کارآفرینی: مطالعة موردی دهستان شباب در استان ایلام،فصلنامة روستا و توسعه، سال 14، شمارة 1، صص. 58-35.
Aitken, K., 2006, Young Entrepreneurs in Rural Northumberland and County Durham, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Centre for Rural Economy Research Report, PP. 1-23.
Beauford, E.Y., 1989, Revitalizing Rural America: focus on rural youth, Southern Rural Sociology, Vol. 6, PP. 1-11.
Cochran, W.G., 1977, Sampling Techniques, New York: John Willey and Sons.
Demurger, S., Fournier, M., Yang, W., 2010, Rural Households' Decisions towards Income Diversification: Evidence from a township in northern China, China Economic Review 21, S32–S44.
Malatest, R.A., 2002, Rural Youth Migration: Exploring the reality behind the myths (rural youth phase II), Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, Retrievedfrom: http://www.acoa-apeca.gc.ca/.
Mallory, M.E. and Sommer, R., 1986, Student Images of Agriculture: Survey Highlights and Recommendations, Journal of Agricultural Education, 27(2), PP. 15-17.
Olujide, M.G., 2008, Attitude of Youth toward Rural Youth Projects in Lagos State, Nigeria, Sci., 17(2), PP. 163-167.
Radhakrishna, R.B. and Ingram, P.D., 2005, Youth in Developing World Implication for Research in International Agricultural and Extension Education, Proceeding of the 21th Annual Conferences Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education.
Sadighi, H., 2005, Perception of Rural Youth on Agricultural Profession: Implication for Extension Programming, Proceeding of the 22th Annual Conferences Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, P. 710.
Talbert, B.A. and Balschweid, M.A., 2004, Engaging Students in the Agricultural Education model: factors affecting student participation in the national FFA organization, Journal of Agricultural Education, Vol. 45, (l), PP. 29-41.
Trell, E.M. Hoven, B.V., Huigen, P., 2012, ‘It’s Good to Live in Järva-Jaani but we can’t stay here’: Youth and belonging in rural Estonia,Cultural Geography Department, Journal of Rural Studies, 28, PP. 139- 148. www.elsevier.com/locate/jrurstud.
Webster, N., Ganpat, W., Banya, A., 2008, Promoting Agriculture and Food Sustainability through Apprenticeship Programs in the Caribbean: A Case Study in Trinidad and Tobago, Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting, PP. 500-509.
Bishi-Tolentino, J., 1996, Institutional Strenghthening and Programme Management Related to Rural Youth Programmes, Issue papers: Expert Consulation on Extension Rural Youth Programmes and Sustinable Development, December 29, 2011. Rome: FAO. Available on: http:// www.fao.org/ docrep/w17650.htm.
ILO, 2008, Youth Employment: Breaking Gender Bariers for Young Women and Men, Available on: http://www.ilo.org/gender/Events/Campaign 2008-2009/WCMS-097842/lang--en/index.htm.
Bar-El, Raphael and Felsenstein, Daniel, 1990, Enterpreneurship and Rural Industrialization: Comparing Urban and Rural Patterns of Locational Choice in Israel, Journal of World Development, Vol. 18, Issue 2, PP. 257-267.
Mohapatra, Sandeep; Rozelle, Scott and Goodhue, Rachel, 2007, The rise of Self-Employment in Rural China: Development or Distress?, World Development, Vol. 35, No.1, PP. 163-181
Refrences in Persian
Hashemi, S.S., Mehrabi, A.A., Amini, S. and Najahi, A., 2011, Rural Development with an Emphasis on Employment and ntrepreneurship: A Case Study of Shabab Subdistrict in Ilam Province of Iran, Journal of Rural Development Studies, 2012(Issue 1), 3; 14 (1), PP. 35-58,
Eskandari, J. and Dinpanah. G., 2006, A Study on the Effective Factors on Creating Motivation for Employing Rural Young People in Agricultural Activities of Isfahan Province, Econ. Jihad Promot.Agri. Rural Dev., 270, PP. 150-161.
Aghasizadeh, F., 1997, Attitude of Rural Youth towards Agriculture and Assessment of their Job Trends in Ghaemshahr Bala Tajan Area and Explanation of Educational Mission of Extension, Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Tarbiat Modares university, Department of Agricultural Extensin and Education. 
Poursina, M., Chizari, M., Farajollah Hosseini S.J. and Tahmasbi, M., 2010, Factors Affecting the Iranian Rural Youth Motivation to be Engaged in Agricultural Profession: A Case Study of Kelardasht County, Roosta va Towse'e, Fall, Volume 13, Number 3; PP. 31-49.
Daneshmehr, H. and Ahmadrash, R., 2010, Survey of Villagers' Social Attitudes toward Social Participation (Case study: Desheh village of Paveh), Journal of Rural Development, Volume 1, Issue 1.
Shahabadi, A., 2010, The Sources of the Growth of Agricultural Sector in Iran, Journal of Rural Development Studies, Issue 4.
Siamak Shahabi, 2007, An Analysis of Family Values for Iranian Rural Youth: A Case Study of Isfahan Province, Journal of Rural Development Studies, Issue 3, Pp. 171-202.
Shahbazi, I., 2006, Development and Rural Extension, Tehran University publication, PP. 622.
Azkia, M., 2009, An Introduction to the Scology of Rural Development, Etelat publication, PP. 321-325.
Movahedian Atar, M., 2008, Press Conference of Administrator of Agriculture and Natural Resources Engineering Disciplinsry Organization of Iran, Agriculture and Natural Resources Engineering Disciplinsry Organization Quaterly, Vol. 4, No. 16, PP. 8-9.
Shabanali Fami, H., 2007, Principles of Agricultural Extension and Education, Payam Noor Publication, PP. 135-136.