Investigation Effect of Socio– Economical Components on Rural Women’s Psychological Empowerment in Islamabad Qarb County

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc., Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Bu- Ali -Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Assosiat Professor, Agricultural Extension Dep., College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali-Sina University, Hamedan, Iran


Introduction: Sociologist shave emphasized the role of women in development, and they believe that without their partnership, development will not be possible. Therefore, it is important in the economy of rural and agricultural sections, and attention to the participation and employment of rural women and also attempts to improvement Investigation effect of socio – economical components on rural women’s psychological empowerment, is considered as one of the necessities of stable development in this section. The experience of many countries shows that entrepreneurship is one of the most effective solutions for reducing unemployment. In so far as to escape from unemployment, the economy of developed and developing countries has revived with the help of entrepreneurship power and this has caused women to accomplish their capability and abilities in various fields in a short period of time and make majorchangesintheeconomic developmentof the country by entering the field of business. In Islamabad Gharb County, the women participation rate is so low.
In Islamabad Gharb County, the women participation rate is so low. That’s why, finding the most effective factors and facilities of women participation are That’s why, therefore in this research is mainly concentrated on Investigation Effect of socio – economical Components on Rural Women’s Psychological Empowerment in Islamabad Gharb conty. In order to find some solution for enhancing their role in family and society economics.
Methodology: The study has used a surveying methodology and research society includes rural women in Islamabad Gharb county; from which 161 cases were selected based on Cochran's formula and a randomized sampling method. Data collection tool was a structured questionnaire which their validity were verified by a group professors and experts development rural, socio psychology an extension agricultural. The reliability of the questionnaire was tested during a pre-test process through which 30 questionnaires were completed by rural women. Cronbach's alpha test calculated for factors facilitator development rural women’s psychological empoerment section which results were 0.90 (α=0.90) respectively. These showed that research tool benefits from a high capability to gather data. SPSS20 software for descriptive data was used.
Finding: The results showed that 56.5 percent of studied women were highly psychological component. Also, the effect of socio – economical component on psychological empowerment is significant at the level of 1 percent. The regression analysis implied that the independent variable of self- confidence, social relationship, state and individual marriage are the most important social and individual factors affecting psychological empowerment of the studied women which totally identifies 81 percent of psychological empowerment changes. The results also indicate the independent variables of sources ownership and saving was the most important economical effective components which identify 53 percent of psychological empowerment changes. The total model of research used multiple – regression indicated that the most powerful social – economical independent variable which identify psychological empowerment of women.
Conclusion: Today, countries and international organizations have concluded that the development of Income and increasing the skills of women, have a direct and positive impact on other aspects; Because on the one hand due to the economic development and create employment opportunities, and on the other hand, can improve the social, cultural and health to women and their families. The results in this regard suggests that the development of rural women psychological empowerment depend on many factors; That the present study, based on the results of the Regression analysis, the levels of source ownership and self- confidence were mostly effective variables. Consequently, according to the research results, the structural and educational evolutions are increase and to improve the women's psychological empowerment status and rural life. Also, based on the results of the study are presented in the following proposals such as:
- To facilitate and encourage rural women and girls psychological empowerment, from all organizations, planners and managers should be required to finance and facilitate the establishment and development workshops in order to facilitate the acquisition assign.
- Training in order to remove cultural barriers, particularly in the areas of economic management family, Women's knowledge about their rights and the need to educate girls to the presence of more and more women in the process of rural development will be necessary.
- It is recommended that non-governmental organizations and authorities working with small actions and projects in the field of motivation to participate in economic activities can play an important role in empowering women, especially in rural areas as well.
- In addition, since only 14.9 percent of rural women have high confidence, thus policies to promote the spirit of self -confidence among women is very effective and necessary. Also according to the results, if women have the backing of savings, the economic situation will be better. Therefore, encouraging women to be more savings strategy is to improve the current situation.
- Finally, it is recommended that appropriate strategies for identifying sustainable income-generating jobs, and creating incentives for economic activity in rural women in order to create enabling them to be done.


Main Subjects

پیرسون، ک.، 1384، معنای مدرنیت، گفت‌وگوی کریستوف رپیرسون با آنتونی گیدنز، ترجمة علی‌‌اصغر سعیدی، تهران، انتشارات کویر.
جلائی‌‌پور، ح.ر. و محمدی، ج.، 1387، نظریه‌‌های متأخر جامعه‌‌شناسی، تهران، نشر نی.
سعدی، ح.، جلیلیان، س. و یعقوبی‌‌فرانی، ا.، 1393، تأثیر کسب‌وکارهای خانگی بر توانمندی اجتماعی زنان روستایی، فصلنامة علمی – پژوهشی زن و جامعه، سال پنجم، شمارة سوم، پاییز، صص. 107- 85.
سیدمن، ا.، 1388، کشاکش آرا در جامعه‌‌شناسی، ترجمة هادی جلیلی، تهران، نشر نی.
شکوری، ع.، رفعتجاه، م. و جعفری، م.، 1386، مؤلفه‌‌های توانمندی زنان و تبیین عوامل مؤثر بر آنها، پژوهش زنان، دورة 5، شمارة 1. 
عرب‌‌مازار، ع. و سعدی، ح.، 1384، بررسی جایگاه بانک کشاورزی در حمایت از زنان سرپرست خانوار روستایی، فصلنامة پژوهشی بانک کشاورزی، شمارة سوم.
علیائی، م.ص. و دهقان‌‌نیستانکی، م.، 1391، بررسی توانمندی‌‌های اقتصادی زنان قالیباف تکاب افشار و نقش آنان در توسعة روستایی، مطالعة موردی روستاهایی شهرستان تکاب (استان آذربایجان غربی)، مجلة مطالعات توسعة اجتماعی ایران، سال پنجم/شمارة اول/زمستان.
علی‌‌ماندگاری، م.، 1384، بررسی تأثیر ابعاد متفاوت استقلال بر رفتار باروری زنان در ایران، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدة علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه تهران.
غفاری، ر.، 1385، جایگاه و نقش زنان روستایی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری در فرایند توسعة پایدار، پایان‌نامة دکتری در رشتة جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، اصفهان: دانشگاه اصفهان، دانشکدة ادبیات و علوم انسانی، گروه جغرافیا.
قلی‌‌پور، ا. و رحیمیان، ا.، 1388، رابطة عوامل اقتصادی، فرهنگی و آموزشی با توانمندسازی زنان سرپرست خانوار، فصلنامة علمی پژوهشی رفاه اجتماعی، سال یازدهم، شمارة 40، صص. 62-30.
کتابی، م.، ایزدخواستی، ب. و فرخی راستابی، ز.، 1382، توانمندسازی زنان برای مشارکت در توسعه، پژوهش زنان، دورة 1، سال 3، شمارة 7.
کلدی، ع.ر. و سلحشوری، پ.، 1392، بررسی تأثیر حمایت اجتماعی بر توانمندسازی زنان، مجلة مطالعات اجتماعی ایران، سال چهارم، شمارة چهارم، پاییز 1391، صص. 23-7.
مقدس، ع.ا. و قدرتی، ح.، 1383، نظریة ساختاری‌شدن آنتونی گیدنز و مبانی روش‌شناختی آن، دوفصلنامة علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، سال اول، شمارة 4، زمستان.
موسوی، س. و.‌‌ا.، 1383، ارتباط بین سبک‌‌های اسناد، عزت‌نفس، خلاقیت و نگرش خلاق در دانشجویان، رسالة دکتری، دانشکدة روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران.
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2006,Fourth Edition Houghton Mifflin Harcourt,Afterword.
Browning, M. & Chiappori, P.A., 1998,Efficient Intra-Household Allocations: A General Characterization and Empirical Tests, Econometrica, Vol. 66, PP. 1241-78.
Deshmukh-Ranadive, J., 2003, Placing Gender Equity in the Family Centre Stage:Use of‘Kala Jatha’ Theatre, Economic and Political Weekly, 26 April.
Duflo, E., 2003,Grandmothers and Granddaughters: Old Age Pension and Intra-Household Allocation in South Africa, World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 42, PP. 1-25.
Frankenberg, E.&Thomas D., 2001,Measuring Power. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division, Discussion Paper No. 113, Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Giddens, A., 1981,A Contemprory Critique ofHistorical Materialism, USA, University of California Press.
Grasmuck, Sherri and Rosario Espinal, 2000, Market Success or Female Autonomy? Income, Ideology, and Empowerment among Microentrepreneurs in the Dominican Republic, Gender and Society 14(2), PP. 231-255.
Hashemi, S.M., Ruth, S., Schuler & Ann, P.R., 1996,Rural Credit Programs and Women’s Empowerment in Bangladesh, World Development, 24(4), PP. 635-653.
Kabeer, N., 2005,Is Microfinance a "Magic Bullet" for Women’s Empowerment?: Analysis of Findings from South Asia, Economic and Political Weekly, 29 October.
Kabeer, N.,1997,Women, Wages and Intra – household Power Relations in Urban Bangladesh, Development and Change, 28(2), PP. 261 – 302.
Kabeer, N., 1999,Resources, Agency, Achievements: Reflections on the Measurement of Women's Empowerment, Development and Change, Vol. 30, No. 3.
Kabeer, N., 2000,Reflections on the Measurement of Women’s Empowerment. In:Discussing Women’s Empowerment: Theory and Practice, SIDA: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.
Kabeer, N., 2001,Reflections on the Measurement ofWomen’s Empowerment. In: Discussing Women’s Empowerment: Theory and Practice, SIDA: Swedish International DevelopmentCooperation Agency.
Kabeer,N., 1999, Agency, Achievement: Reflections on the Measurement of Women’s Empowerment.
Mayoux, L.1995,Beyond Naivety: Women, Gender Inequality and Participatory Development, Development and Change26, PP. 235–258.
Miller, D.C.,1980,Handbook of Research Designs and Social Measurement, 2nd eds., New York: Mckuy.
Nussbaum, M., 2000,Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, New York: Cambridge Press.
Nussbaum, Martha, 2000,Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, New York: Cambridge Press.
Parpart, J.L., Rai, S.M. & Staudt, K., 2003,Rethinking Empowerment: Gender and development, Oxford University Pressand Community Development Journal, Vol. 36, No. 4, PP. 289-302.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, 1999, Version 3.0., Random House Webster's Random House Inc.
Robins, S.P., Chatterjee, P. & Canda, E.R., 1998,Contemporary Human Behavior Theory: A critical perspective forsocial work, Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Swain,B.& Wallentin, Y., 2008,Economic or Non-economic Factors- What Empowers Women?, Working Paper department of economics UPPSALA universitet.
United Nations Development Programmed (UNDP), 2007,Human Development Report 2007: Consumption for Human Development, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wallerstein, N., 1992,Powerless, Empowerment and Health: Implications for health promotion programs, American Journal ofHealth Promotion, 6, (3), PP. 197-205.
WorldBank, 2005,Empowerment in Practice from Analysis to Implementation, Ruth Alsop, Mette Frost, Bertelsen Jeremy, Holland16031-in South Asia Environment and Social Unit, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Zimmerman, M., 1990b, Taking Aim at Empowermentresearch: On the Distinction between Individual and Psychological Conceptions, American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, PP. 169-177.
References (In Persian)
Alimandegari, M., 2005,Effect of Different Aspects of the Independence of the Reproductive Behavior of Women in Iran, MA thesis, Dankdh Social Sciences, Tehran University.
Arabmazar, A. & Saadi, H., 2005, Check the Agricultural Bank in Support of Women Heads of Rural Households, Journal of Agricultural Bank third number.
Ghafari, R., 2006,Place and Role of Rural Women in the Process of Sustainable Development and Bakhtiari Province, Brnamnh doctoral dissertation in geography and rural planning, Isfahan:Isfahan University, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Department of Geography.
Gholipour, A. & Rahimian, A., 2009, Economic Factors, Cultural and Educational Empowerment of Women Heads of Households, Journal of Social Welfare, in the eleventh, No. 40, PP. 30-62.
Jalaley Puvr, H.R. & Mohammadi, J., 2008, Later Sociology Theories, Tehran, Nshrney.
Keldey, A.R. & Salahshory, P., 2012, The Effects of Social Support on the Empowerment of Women, Journal of Social Studies, Issue IV, November.
Ketabi, M., Yazdkhavasti, B. & Farokhi Rasti, Z., 2003,Empowering Women to Participate in Development, Women's Research, Vol. 1, Vol. 3, No. 7.
Moghadas, A.A. & Ghodrati, H., 2004, Structural Theory of Anthony Giddens and Methodological Foundations, Dvfslnamh of Social Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, the first year, No. 4, December.
Mosavi, S.V., 2004, Relationship between Attribution Styles, Self-esteem, Creativity and Creative Attitude in the Students, Thesis, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Tehran University.
Oliaey, M.S. & Dehghannistanki, M., 2012,Examine the Economic Empowerment of Women and their Role in Rural Development Qalibaf Afshar Takab, Case study villages Takab city (West Azarbaijan), Journal of Social Development, the fifth year / first issue / December.
Pearson, C., 2005, The Meaning of Modernity, Christoph Rpyrsvn dialogue with Anthony Giddens, Translation Ali Asghrsydy, Tehran: Publishers Kavir.
Saadi, H., Jalileans, S. & Yaghoubi- Frani, A., 2014, The Impact of Home-based Businesses on Social Empowerment of Rural Women, Journal of women and society, in the fifth, the third issue, November, 107, PP. 85.
Seydman, E., 2009, Conflictof Opinionsin Society, TranslationHadiJalili, Tehran, spreadingNey.
Shakori, A., Rafatjah, M. & Jafari, M., 2007, Component of Women's Empowerment and Explain the Factors Influencing them,ResearchWomen, Volume5, Number1.