Review of social and economic factors affecting land Degradation (Case study Gorichay watershed of Ardebil province)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Agriculture, Parsabad Moghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Parsabad, Iran

2 Criminal Law and Criminology M.Sc. Student at Azad University of Semnan

3 Law Expert, Islamic Azad University of Pishva

4 Graduate Student Entrepreneurship, University of Kashan


Soil is one of the most important natural resources of each country. Soil erosion as a threat to human welfare and even his life. In areas where soil erosion is not controlled, gradually eroded soil, its fertility lose.Soil erosion is not only poor and abandoned farms and the way much damage is irreparable and leaves, but the deposition of material in streams, reservoirs, harbors and is causing large losses to reduce their intake capacity .
Residents of the watershed for the production and land use decisions are heavily influenced by social and economic factors. In the developed world the role of agricultural subsidies, quotas and guaranteed prices is the particular importance. In the past there have been many examples of economic shocks that lead to tragic consequences such as soil erosion is unpredictable environment. Problems caused by the emphasis on increasing productivity, because many of the costs arise incurred are hidden or out in the community and outside the community imposed,. (Bvardmn et al., 2003).
Quri-Chay watershed is located in the East Village and at a distance of 20 kilometers from the border of Iran and Azerbaijan. Areas range from 00 35 ° 47 to 11 45 ° 47 'east longitude and 37 12 ° 39 42 21 ° 39' north latitude.
In this study, collecting information needed by various methods such as reviewing the documents, observation, interview, survey methods and rapid assessment of rural and questionnaires were used. In this study, these methods are combined together to determine the socio-economic conditions and livelihoods of the inhabitants of the watershed are used Quri-Chay. To verify the information contained in the documents of the health centers, departments of agriculture, natural resources and city of Parsabad and feasibility studies to identify watershed of Quri-Chay in Ardebil.
In order to verify the information and documents obtained information on the sources of income, expenses, household status, migration and due to high costs, long time needed, the unavailability of all people and not allow the overall survey, three quarters of the population (Surrey strong Ahmed Khan, Mohammad Jalil, Mashhad Ali) as samples and using a sample survey and questionnaire were evaluated designed by people (265 questionnaires) and the results were extended to the entire area. Rapid Rural Appraisal techniques to identify the accurate, rapid and cost, in addition to decision-making and participatory planning are used. For exact identification and participatory planning in rural teapot rapid assessment was conducted in four stages: identifying the problems of the subject and scope, classification data, prioritizing the problems raised, the role of the economic and social land degradation in the Quri-chay. After gathering the information, a questionnaire research and analysis included descriptive statistics unprocessed data (frequency and percentage) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient) into spss software and using tests Statistical will be analysis.
The results are consistent with previous studies and suggest that social and economic conditions prevailing in the basin has a direct impact on how land use. Therefore, taking into account soil erosion and land degradation as a physical process, and not only due to economic and social problems but also it can not be a comprehensive statement of reasons for degradation (Bvardmn et al., 2003).
The erosion and sedimentation and degradation in the area of economic and social problems caused by the limited Quri-chay one income residents living in the areas that are dependent on farming and agriculture, and that's a lot of pressure on the natural resources of the area into (Stokin and Morgan, 2001).And other natural factors of geology and topography is sensitive. So having an impact both on the field is destroyed and erosion can not be seen merely as a physical process.
In the Quri-chay due to irregular and unethical exploitation of pastures and soil and water resources and rangeland areas in drylands, especially on slopes, causing serious damage to vegetation, pasture area and as a result of destructive floods, types of erosion and gully erosion, is especially in areas that destroys the range of flat land in the area of output, (Nonya et al., 2008; Nepal, 2001).
The consequences of uncontrolled exploitation and destruction of natural resources in principle and ultimately cause instability in the region and increased migration and evacuation of the inhabitants of the villages that we see in the watershed pot of tea (Nonya et al., 2008).
It seems that the main problem areas of low family income and the lack of investment in the area
So that only economic support livestock and dryland areas, is used to obtain the maximum profit and loss management and planning, the maximum pressure is on natural resources. As well as the economic and social problems can be a difficult area of rangeland management practices, lack of the plantation, the lack of agricultural inputs, the livestock range capacity, lack of infrastructure, low levels of literacy and education, which ultimately directly or indirectly to the destruction of their land. It seems that in order to prevent further land degradation and migration and depopulation of rural areas the main focus of proposed programs to increase revenue, offer new ways of living, in addition to agricultural based on the principles sustainable livelihoods, facilities infrastructure, educating residents about proper range management and agricultural practices in the field.


Main Subjects

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