Ecovillage modeling for rural area around wetland ecosystem, Case stady: Miankale and lapo wetlands



Today we are facing many challenges in various fields such as climate change, economic crisis and inequality that mainly due to unsustainable pattern of life, and it created environmental issues such as reduction of resources, coastal and marine degradation, deforestation and threats to biodiversity. As we know, many of today's environmental problems are the result of unsustainable living patterns. Loss of wetland ecosystems is for unsustainable living pattern also. It is being increasingly recognized that the transition to more ecologically sustainable settlement with reduced ecological footprints will require them to be restructured to imitate the processes of natural ecosystems. These requirements imply a different approach to planning. In response to ecological, social and economic challenges of the unsustainable living patterns, Ecovillage model has been appearing worldwide. Also Ecovillage model define as a human scale, full featured settlement that harmlessly integrates human activities into the natural world, supports healthy human development and can be successfully continued into the indefinite future. These characteristics can be influenced to varying degrees by the cultural and socio-economic context within which the settlement exists. Considering the importance of wetlands and its impact on life of rural communities, this study aimed to evaluate level of Ecovillage model and determine sustainable lifestyle based on Ecovillage model in the villages of surrounding of Miankale and Lapo Zaghmarz wetlands. Therefore this article aimed to answer the question that suitable model for sustainable living based on Ecovillage model in villages of surrounding of wetlands model is? 

Methodology is descriptive- analytic and surveying. The independent variable in this research is sustainable lifestyle based on Ecovillage model. Based on research findings, 15 factors include of 6 factors for ecological sustainability, 4 factors for economic sustainability and 5 factors for social sustainability have been obtained to assess level of sustainability of lifestyle based on Ecovillage model. Research case study consisted of village’s of around of Miankale and Lapo wetlands in Mazandaran and Golestan Province, that based on factors of settling in basin of wetland, settling in 1000 meters to rivers, setting in 8 kilometers of wetland, Population density and economic dependence on wetland, 13 villages were selected. Research population consisted of experts and villager’s 13 villages in Behshar, Galoga, Bandargaz and torkman township (around of wetlands) that with Cochran method 360 were selected as research sample. Reliability of Questionnaire with Cronbach Alpha method (0.947) and validity of Questionnaire with KMO test were confirmed. After data gathering, it was analyzed by SPSS software. After determining the contribution of each indicator and assessment of sustainability level and gap analysis with one sample t-test test, sustainable living model was constructed. 

Results and Discussion 
The results show that the ecological dimension with a mean of 3.71 more importance than other dimensions of the Ecovillage model is. Also the study area results in terms of one sample t-test test and the mean value 1.77 indicate villages of surrounding of Miankale and Lapo wetland have a relatively poor level of sustainable lifestyle based on ecovillage model. The difference in the level of alpha 0.05 (Sig = 0.000) is significant. In terms of dimension, the results indicate low levels of sustainability based on Ecovillage model in all three in the study area. This difference is significant at the alpha level (Sig = 0.000). Also dimension of ecological with mean value 1.93 is more sustainable than social dimension with mean value 1.82 and economic dimension with mean value 1.56 for sustainable lifestyle in the villages of around wetland in studied area. Conceptual Framework for sustainable pattern of living, in terms of principles of Ecovillage model (live with nature, green consumption and Production of Community) and relationship between rural communities and wetland ecosystem, is integrated model of ecological social- cultural and economic dimensions, and 3-nested-dependencies model. This model of expert opinion as well as concentric circle and their constituent components were accepted. 

Model for sustainable living in the villages surrounding of wetland in study area based on the fundamental principles of Ecovillage and relationship between rural communities and wetland ecosystem, is integrated model of ecological social-cultural and economic dimensions, and 3-nested-dependencies model (Economy is dependent on society and both are dependent on the environment). Importance of determining indicators of Ecovillage model measured by Experts and determining parameters of model were measured in the study area. The results are consistent with the model and ecological indicators to achieve the most contribution to sustainability rural communities and wetland ecosystems. The following indicators of social - cultural contribution had and Economic indicators have the least. This point can be derived that sustainable lifestyle based on Ecovillage for villages of wetland surrounding, ecological processes over other processes of social, economic and cultural , are important. Therefore for the protection of wetland ecosystems, Priority action for sustainable living in the villages along the wetland should be driven based on ecology. Another important finding of the survey, this is in addition to the preference of ecological dimension, Sustainability of wetland ecosystems and rural communities will be achieved, if all dimensions and parameters defining of Ecovillage be considered integrated. Therefore conceptual Framework for sustainable pattern of living in village’s of wetland surrounding, is integrated model of ecological social-cultural and economic dimensions, and 3-nested-dependencies model (Economy is dependent on society and both are dependent on the environment). This model of expert opinion as well as concentric circle and their constituent components were accepted. Since level of sustainability of living pattern in villages of the study area is very low, for the move from the current state to the desired state is necessary to implement strategies including Promote the preservation of wetland; Empowerment of villagers; strengthening the ecological infrastructure; Promotion of participatory management.


مرکز آمار ایران، 7981 ، سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن، شناسنامة آبادی های شهرستان بهشهر،
گلوگاه، بندرگز و ترکمن.
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