Effects of Out-Migration of Children on social support of aged rural parents left behind




Out-migration is a common phenomenon to the most villages in Iran, however, there are few studies about the effects of migration on those who left behind in the villages. In this paper, we attempt to find out the effects of children s out-migration on social support of aged parents who left behind in the villages of Bardaskan. In Rural areas of this region, most families faces with some or all children that migrate. Based on census data, between “2006-2011”, the rural population of Bardaskan has decrease about 2000. At the same time, In rural areas, the percentage of 60 years old and above persons have been 2 times more than urban areas (12.2 vs 6.2). This figure shows high out-migration of adults and youngsters while older people stay because they unable or unwilling to leave villages. Then, the study question is: what is the impacts of out-migration of children on older parents who stay in rural areas.

 For the purpose of the study, 357 older people that at least had one surviving child, have been interviewed by a structured questionnaire. Respondents have been selected based on multi-stage sampling and a combination of cluster and simple random sampling from 9 villages.to define dependent variables, We modified existing measures, taking into account the importance in the region context of the family and of children. We measured received support (instrumental, financial and emotional), and perceived adequacy of support from children. The answers contained a five option from very much to nothing. There were 2, 2 and 3 questions for measuring financial, emotional and instrumental support respectively. We defined an out-migrant child as a child living outside the parent’s district of residence (outside of village) for a minimum of the past 6 months. We used minimum of 6 months to avoid temporary absences. Considering asked name of destination of migration, we could calculate the interval of migration. In final analysis, the answers classified in 7 categories.
 in our research, 357 questioners used for analytical purposes. The number of males and females almost are the same and females are more just 3 people. At the time of study, about 64% of the interviewed persons (old parents) were married, but share of women of widows was very mush more and close to 83% of them were females. Most respondents were illiterate and just 103 people could read and write. close to 70% of sample had income below 5000000 and about 48% below 3000000 monthly. This figure shows the extent of poverty among rural elders. In the study sample of 357 parents, 68.1% lived with at least one child stayed in the district and at least one child migrated, 9% lived with all children (without any migrated children), and, others do not have any co-resident child. bivariate correlations showed The interval between child and parents (migration of children) have a positive relationship with financial support and negative relationship with instrumental and emotional support. other characteristics of children have a meaningful relation with social support and this shows that the personal characteristics of children is very important factors in providing social support. The interesting point is that the strongest relation have seen between social support (three types) and migration of children. Among characteristics of parents, some variables don t have a meaningful relation with sicial support. Especially, literacy status does not have any correlation with these three aspects of social support. Sex of parent have a positive relation with financial support, this means that children s financial support to mothers is more than fathers. To control most variables in one model, use of multivariate regression is appropriate and common. Here, based on level of measurement of variables (interval scales), we apply multivariate (stepwise method) regression for three aspect of social support. The results showed that out-migration of children highly limit family networks and interactions. Also, that have negative effects on emotional and instrumental support of elder parents. At the same time, elders have benefits of material supports of that migration.
Results: We find contradictory effect of migration of children on these three types, while it is positive effect on financial support, negative effects on instrumental and emotional have been seen.
It seems that the children who migrate, by financial support, are seeking the ways to compensate the shortages driven by other supports. In Sum, the effects of children s out-migration on aged parents have seen, but the effects are various and parents get benefits and losses. The reader should not forget the role of other variables in this processes. At least, 4 variables are very important including health, income and marital status of olds persons and income level of children. In fact, both characteristics of parents and children have their independent role.


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