After the occurrence of a natural disaster, existing houses become useless and the affected families have to live in a place other than their ruined homes. In this situation they should be able to do their chores, stay safe from heat and cold and obtain their lost lull and they need to reside and live at the same time. However, many of the temporary shelters that are made and used today despite their some possible values, are in contrast with life and surrounding environment because of ignorance of the concepts of residence and unfortunately they (the temporary shelters) have too many flaws in both functional and physical terms.
Considering the above issues, it is very important to pay careful attention to the design and construction of temporary housing by considering at least the basic requirements of the affected people. Therefore, the purpose of this study is the evaluation and analysis of temporary housing for victims of disaster after the earthquake and natural disasters to identify its strengths and weaknesses in order to optimize and provide solutions for improving its quality tailored to the needs of victims. This paper attempts to answer this question that what features and components are effective on satisfaction of temporary housing and what features these houses should have in order to be able to respond to the need of victims. In this regard, to answer these questions, this study will investigate the temporary housing after the earthquake in the rural areas of Sarand-Heris and will also classify and evaluate the factors and bring quality to the temporary housing.
in this study, the main focus is on providing qualitative components that are needed for desirable design of temporary shelters after disasters.
For this purpose, first, in a comparative study between the extracted criteria and characteristics of the previous temporary housing, the mail criteria that are closer to the nature of temporary housing spaces will be defined. In the next step, the extracted and defined criteria will be evaluated by use of the “Likert Scale” in separate tables. Each criterion has a range of minimum and maximum points. Therefore by dividing the obtained number from this range, three qualities of good, average and poor will be achieved for each criterion. In the following, each criterion and its quality will be evaluated according to certain methods including field data's and oral interview (about 54 interviewees of various age and sex groups). The results show that the victims have low satisfaction from the social and physical components of temporary housing and have moderate satisfaction from the technical components. In the meantime, the victims have the lowest level of satisfaction of temporary housing from components of "security" and "protection of human dignity and privacy" and "environmental perception " of social criterion, components of "health" and "from" and "architecture and designing" of physical criterion and "utilities and energy" of technical and structural criterion. Therefore, it is possible to decrease the problems with measures such as use of suitable covers for temporary housing, use of durable materials in the construction of temporary housing, fencing around tents, setting up family tent together, and determination of the boundary for each tent and the placement of entrance of tent in front of entrance of neighbor's tent.
The result of this study also shows that some other arrangements can also improve the quality of temporary housing including proper access to work, suitable arrangements of the tents in camps, possibility of creating temporary recreation equipment's for children, use of durable, waterproof materials, use of the fire-resistant bodies, use of materials resistant to atmosphere, use of neutral and pale colors in bodies, use of bold and relaxing colors such as blue in the surface, placement of constant trash cans with hob guard, providing at least one large container in place to collect garbage, construction of temporary housing away from the trash, placement of enough prefabricated bathroom in place, avoiding unnecessary complexity, use of angles close to the curved form to pass the wind flow and for pressure drop and for being suitable for damaged moral, use of sharp and sloping roofs to prevent accumulation of rain water in bodies, possibility of expansion in the future, possibility of changing and replacement of parts, use of prefabricated products, adaptability of the prefabricated houses in order to adapt with different location and environment, considering cultural expression, having specific identity from the viewpoint of general technical and functional characteristics, possibility of shelving parts of interior space for storage, designing for people with disabilities, possibility of space separation, considering places to install steam vent and ventilation and stove, use of double-layer insole, use of tape in the seams, sue of double-glazed windows, adding the number of windows for improving lighting and ventilation level, good infrastructure including water supply, doing part of assembly stages in production location before the event, use of vernacular materials in manufacturing and setting up tents.
The result of this study shows that there are many factor including social, cultural and economic and technical that should be taken into consideration when devising a new home for affected people. The key point is that a balance should be made among these factors according to the people’s needs and requirements.