Measurement and Analyses of Social Stability in Rural Area (Case Study: Javanrood Township)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Humanities, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran.

2 PhD Candidate Young Researchers and Elite Club, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

3 PhD, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.


The purpose of this study is to measure the social stability and its influencing factors among the residents of rural areas especially in rural Javanrood Township. The study population composed of all the heads in ahouse in villages (rural households over 20 households) of Javanrood Township (N=4484). Given the constraints facing, researchers have chosen not to examine the entire population using Cochran formula, rather 253 peoplewho were the representatives of the township were considered for their opinions by means of random sampling. The main research instrument was a questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by experts and academics and its reliability was checked in a pilot study with a total of 30 questionnaires outside the study area. TheCronbach’s alpha coefficients were obtained for the different sections of the questionnaire. The results reveal in good condition is social stability in the rural area with an average of 3.86. It is also indicated in the results between the different indicators of social sustainability, social sustainability highest impacts in rural area are five indicators of accountability, future, happiness, social interaction and community involvement, with coefficients of variation 0.276, 0.282, 0.292, 0.296 and 0.306. Multiple regression results demonstrated a significant relationship with the dependent variable of 10 variables (social sustainability) and have described a total of 4.73% of the variance Javanrood Township rural social stability. In the order of importance, are the most important variables affecting social stability areincome, family size, supplies, education and land ownership.


Boggia, A., Rocchi, L., Paolotti, L., Musotti, F., & Greco, S. (2014). Assessing rural sustainable development potentialities using a sominance-based rough set approach. Journal of Environmental Management, 37(144), 160-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.05.021
Colantonio, A., Dixon, T., Ganser, R., Carpenter, J., & Ngombe, A. (2009). Measuring socially sustainable urban regeneration in Europe. Oxford: University of Oxford Publication.
Faraji Sabokbar, H., Badri S. A, Motti'i Langroudi S. H., & Sharafi, H. (2010). [Measuring the sustainability of rural areas using Analytical Network Process (ANP) (Case study: Rural areas of Fasa County) (Persian)]. Human Geography Research, 42(2), 135-56.
Fatahi, A., Bayat, N., Amiri, A., & Nemati, R. (2013). [Measurement and priority social sustainable in rural regions in Township Delfan, with using a multiple criteria model Vikor (Case study: Northern khaveh Village) (Persian)]. Journal of Regional Planning, 3(11), 65-78.
Galani-Moutafi, V. (2013). Rural space (re)produced e Practices, performances and visions (A case study from an Aegean island). Journal of Rural Studies, 32(4), 103-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2013.04.007
Ghadermarzi, H. (2015). [Strategic planning for the development of employment in rural areas Javanrood City (Persian)]. Economy of Space and Rural Development, 4(11), 109-30.
Ghadermarzi, H., Jamini, D., Jamshidi, A., & Cheraghi, R. (2013). [Analysis of spatial inequality in rural areas based on the housing indicators of rural of Kermanshah Province (Persian)]. Economy of space and Rural Development, 2(3), 93-113.
Gharakhlou, M., Abdi, N., & Zanganeh Shahraki, S. (2009). [Analysis of the level of urban sustainability in informal settlements of Sanandaj (Persian)]. Human Geography Research, 42(69), 1-16.
Glasson, J., & Wood, G. (2009). Urban regeneration and impact assessment for social sustainability. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 11(4), 283-90. doi: 10.3152/146155109x480358
Hadizadeh, S., & Nastaran, M. (2014). [The evaluation of social sustainability in Daryadel, Goharshad and Shahed Districts in Mashhad City (Persian)]. Journal of Geography & Regional Development, 11(21), 139-56.
Hutchins, M. J., & Sutherland, J. W. (2008). An exploration of measures of social sustainability and their application to supply chain decisions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(3), 1688–698. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.06.001
Ihuah, P. W., Kakulu, I. I., & Eaton, D. (2014). A review of Critical Project Management Success Factors (CPMSF) for sustainable social housing in Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 3(1), 62-71. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2014.08.001
Jamini, D., Azizian J., Mirzaei, K. (2016). [Identifying the factors affecting the development of rural cooperatives entrepreneurship (Case study: Uramanat Kermanshah Province) (Persian)]. Paper presented at The 1st International Conference on Accounting, Business Management and Innovation, Rasht, Iran, 20 September 2015.
Jamini, D., & Jamshidi, A. (2015). [Analysis of the factors that explain the social stability in rural areas (Case study: Chardavol township) (Persian)]. Journal of Spatial Planning, 4(4), 147-65.
Jamini, D., Jamshidi, A., Komasi, A. R., & Aryanpour, A. (2015). [An enquiry into the developmental of Ravansar Township (Persian)]. Tehran: Hafeze Bartar Andish Publication.
Knight, J. (2014). Economic causes and cures of social instability in China. China & World Economy, 22(2), 5-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-124x.2014.12059.x
Luo, X., Li, P., & Fu, X. (2011). Factors that affect social stability of rural areas in Ganzi district. Asian Agricultural Research, 3(2), 43-83. doi: 10.5539/jas.v3n2p223
Mahmoodi, S., Rokneddin Eftekhari, A. R., & Pourtaheri, M. (2014). [The role of rural women’s stress in spatial distribution of rural socio-economic instability (Case study: Maneh District, Mane and Samalghan County) (Persian)]. Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 2(2), 287-310.
Mak, M., & Peacock, C. J. (2011). Social sustainability: A comparison of case studies in UK, USA and Australia. Poster presented at the 17th Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, 16-19 January 2011.
Missimer, M., Robèrt, K. H., Broman, G., & Sverdrup, H. (2010). Exploring the possibility of a systematic and generic approach to social sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(3), 1107-112. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.02.024
Mota, B., Gomes, M. I., Carvalho, A., & Barbosa-Povoa, A. P. (2015). Towards supply chain sustainability: economic, environmental and social design and planning. Journal of Cleaner Production, 105, 14-27. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.07.052
Nastaran, M., Ghasemi, V., & Hadizadeh Zargar, S. (2013). [Assessment of indices of social sustainability by using analytic network process (ANP) (Persian)]. Journal of Applied Sociology, 24(3), 155-73.
Osmann, I., & Spangenberg, J. H. (2002). Assessing social sustainability; The social dimension of sustainability in a socio-economic scenario. Paper presented at the 7th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics, Sousse, Tunisia, 6-9 March 2002.
Pourtaheri, M., Zal, A., & Rokneddin Eftekhari, A. R. (2012). [An evaluation and prioritization of social sustainability in rural areas: A case study of villages in Khorrambid County of Fars Province (Persian)]. Journal of Rural Development Studies, 14(3), 19-49.
Salemi, M., Hamzeh’ee, M. R., & Mirakzadeh, A. A. (2011). [Social sustainability of rural women assessing Sonqor County (Persian)]. Women's Studies Sociological and Psychological, 9(1), 55-76.
Seydaei, S. E., Jamini, D., & Jamshidi, A. (2014). [An analysis on the status of health-therapeutic indexes in the provinces of Kermanshah using TOPSIS, AHP and cluster analysis models (Persian)]. Journal of Spatial Planing, 4(1), 43-64.
Shafia, M. A., & Shafia, S. (2012). [A study of the relationship between sustainable social development and social capital (Case study: Residents of Shemiran Nou) (Persian)]. Applied Sociology, 23(2), 139-64.
Steffen, W., Sanderson, A., Jäger, J., Tyson, P. D., Moore, B., Matson, P. A., et al. (2004). Global change and the earth system: A planet under pressure. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
Tavakkoli, J. (2014). [Socio-economic sustainability assessment of rural settlements of north and South Khave rural districts, Lorestan province (Persian)]. Journal of Applied Researches in Geographical Sciences, 14(32), 71-92.
Teimouri, I., Farhudi, R., Rahnemaei, M. T., & Gharakhlu, M. (2012). [Evaluating social sustainability using Fuzzy Logic (Case study: Tehran) (Persian)]. Geography, 10(35), 19-25.
United Nations. (2009). The millennium development goals Report 2009. New York: United Nations.
Varesi, H., Babaei Aghdam, F., & Alizadeh, J. (2013). [Measurement of social sustainability rate in rural districts using Fuzzy Delphi and Fuzzy TOPSIS techniques (Case study: Rural districts of Aslanduz rural districts in Ardebil province) (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Human Geography, 5, 53-73.
Wellbrock, W., Roep, D., Mahon, M., Kairyte, E., Nienaber, B., Dolores, M., et al. (2014). Arranging public support to unfold collaborative modes of governance in rural areas. Journal of Rural Studies, 32(3), 420-29. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2013.10.002
Zare Shahabadi, A., Hajizadeh Meymandi, M., & Zare Bidaky, Kh. (2013). [Measuring social sustainability new and old neighborhoods in the City of Yazd (Persian)]. Journal of Urban Studies (Motaleate Shahri), 3(7), 105-34.