The Role of Combating Desertification Projects in Promotion of Local People’s Social Capital (The Case of Shahdad Carbon Sequestration Project)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc., Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, School of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, School of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


This study examined the role of Carbon Sequestration Project (CSP) in improving the social capital of local people in Shahdad area of Kerman Province. The statistical population consisted of the members of the development groups of 6 rural districts with 456 people, as well as the local people of 6 rural districts outside of the project with 1428 people. The sample size was determined as 218 people based on Krejcie and Morgan’s (1970) table. For the purpose of comparison, a similar number of local people that lived out of project area were selected. The samples were chosen using stratified random sampling method. Questionnaire was the main tool for collecting data. The agricultural extension and education specialists, as well as experts of CSP in the Forest, Range and Watershed Management Organization confirmed content validity of the questionnaire. The Cronbach α coefficient was calculated for determining the reliability of the questionnaire and its value for different parts were between 0.70 and 0.90. According to the results, there were significant differences between the local people’s social capital that covered by the project before and after the implementation of the project. In addition, there were significant differences between local people’s social capital under and out of coverage of the project. Finally, based on research results, some suggestions were presented for further strengthening of social capital and development of CSP. 


Abdollahi, M. (2007). [Desertification and women participation (Persian)]. Forest and Range quarterly, 7, 42-43.
Akabayashi, A. (2003). Report of the project strategies for social consensus building on the policies concerning advanced medical technologies. Tokyo: Fuji Research Institute Corporation.
Azkia, M. & Ghaffari, Gh. (2004). [Rural development with emphasis on Iranian rural society (Persian)]. Tehran: Ney Publication.
Afroogh, A. (1999). [Subcultures, participation and social cohesion, Procedding of social cohesion and public culture (Persian)]. Tehran: Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance.
Borrini G. (1999). Collaborative management of protected areas: Tailoring the approach to the context. The world conservation union.
Brow, A. (1995). Popular participation and empowerment in natural resource management. Paper presented at The Second Common Wealth NGO Forum, Wellington, Newzeland, 18-23 June 1995.
Davis, J., Kang, A., Vincent, J., & Whittington, D. (2001). How important is improved water infrastructure to microenterprises? Evidence from Uganda. World Development, 29(10), 1753–1767. doi:10.1016/s0305-750x(01)00059-6
Falsoleyman, M., & Hojajipour, M. (2011). [Investigation the community based organization sustainability in rural area: Experiences of carbon sequestration project in South Khorasan (Persian)]. Geographical Sciences Applied Research, 20(23), 107-127.
Ferrol-Schulte, D., Wolff, M., Ferse, S., & Glaser, M. (2013). Sustainable livelihoods approach in tropical coastal and marine social–ecological systems: A review. Marine Policy, 42, 253–258. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2013.03.007
Grootaert, C. (2004). Measuring social capital: An integrated questionnaire (No. 18). New York: World Bank Publications.
Hassannejad, M., Kohansal, M., & Ghorbani, M. (2010). [Feasibility of motivational and implementation policies of carbon sequestration international project regarding the empowering of local people (Persian)]. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 24(3), 323-334.
Hassannejad, M., Kohansal M., & Ghorbani, M. (2011). [Factors affecting rural people participation in rural development groups: a case study of carbon sequestration project in South Khorasan Province of Iran (Persian)]. Village and Development, 14(2), 73-91.
Jafari, M., Hayati, J., Zargham, N., Azarnivand, H. & Soufi, M., (2003). [Investiagtion and evaluation of combating desetrification in Lar plain (Persian)]. Journal of Geographical Studies, 36(50), 199-213.
Jomepour, M. (2012). [The third kind of settlement, an approach to achieve suitable settlement in accordance with sustainable development (Persian)]. Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 1(2), 1-27.
Khakpour, B., Mani E., & Bavanpour, A. (2009). [The role of capital in the regional stable development, case study: Sajjad area in Mashhad (Persian)]. Journal of Geography and Regional Development, 6(12), 55-81.
Mohammadi, M. A. (2005). [Social capital and its measurement (Persian)]. Tehran: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences.
Miri, G., Javan, J., Afrakhteh, H., Velayati, S. And Shayan, H. (2010).[The role of social capital in rural development (Case Study: Posht Ab Sistan) (Persian)]. Journal of Geography and Regional Development, 14, 29-50.
Natural Resources and Watershed Management Department of Kerman Province. (2016). [Carbon sequestration project, Desert affarirs office (Persian)] [Internet]. Retrieved from www.
Onyx, J., & Bullen, P. (2000). Measuring social capital in five communities. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 36(1), 23–42. doi:10.1177/0021886300361002
Rannani, M., & Moayyedfar, R. (2011). [Moral and economic decay cycles (Persian)]. Tehran: Tarh-e-no.
Saadi, H., Kalantri, Kh., & Iravani H. (2008). [Determination of preferable extension system for preventing desertification: An application of analytical and hierarchical process (AHP) (Persian)]. Iran Agricultural extension and education journal, 4(1), 1-12.
Saberifar, R., Falsoleyman, M., Gheisari, S. (2012). [Sustainable local development and attracting maximum participation of people case study: The experiences of international project of carbon sequestration in South Khorasan (Persian)]. Journal of Geography and Development, 28, 45-14.
Sharepoor, M. (2006). [Social capital: Conceptualization, measurement and policy implications (Persian)]. Sari: Management and Planning Organization of Mazandaran.
Shafiee, M., Abdolhosseini, M., Yari, A. (2013). [Participatory management of natural resources and rural development planning in arid and semi-arid areas (Persian)]. Mashhad: Shoara.
Sano, Y. (2008). The role of social capital in a common property resource system in coastal areas: A case study of community-based coastal resource management in Fiji. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin, 24, 19-32.
Tajbakhsh, K. (2005). [Social capital and participaion in villages of Fars Province (Persian)]. Tehran: Shirazeh publication.
Tajbakhsh, K. (2010). [Social capital: Trust, democracy and development (Persian)]. Tehran: Shirazeh publication.
Tashakor, Z., Moeini, M. R. (2002). [Social capital and development: An overview (Persian)]. Social Welfare, 1(4), 25-42.
The Team of Specialists on Participation in Forestry. (2001). Public participation in forestry in Europe and North America. Geneva: FAO Commity.
United Nations. (2013). Combating desertification in Kenya: Emerging lessons from empowering local communities. New York: United Nations