Case Study: Analysis of Factors Affecting Sustainable Food Security Rural Households: Zanjan Township

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Human Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Human Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 .Iran, Tehran, Tehran of University, Geography of Faculty, Planning Rural and Geography of Department, Ph


Providing sustainable food security in rural societies is one of the main objective of rural development programs. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable food security of rural households. The study design is descriptive-analytical with practical applications. The study population was rural households in Zanjan Township. In 2011, Zanjan Township comprised 97225 rural people, 26429 households, 13 districts and 248 villages. A total of 54 villages were selected as study villages. Library and field research (questionnaire) were used for data collection. For data analysis, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (1-sample t test and linear regression) were used. Results indicated that sustainable food security of rural households was not optimum. The economic factors were the most important factors in food security of sustainable rural households. According to the research findings, suggestions, such as expanding and strengthening consumer stores, offering a basket of food commodities were provided to families covered by social institutions.


ADAS, AEA (Agricultural Engineering Association), AHDB (Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board), AIC (Agriculture Industries Confederation), CLA(Country Land and Business Association), Farming Futures, FWAG (Farm Wildlife Advisory Group), LEAF (Linking Environment And Farming), NFU (National Farmers Union), NIAB/TAG (National Institute of Agricultural Botany/ The Arable Group), ORC (Elm Farm Organic Research Centre), RASE (Royal Agricultural Society of England), 04 April 2011. Meeting the Challenge: Agriculture Industry GHG Action Plan Delivery of Phase I: 2010e2012. Retrieved from
Andersson Djurfeldt, A. (2015). Urbanization and linkages to smallholder farming in sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for food security. Global Food Security, 4, 1–7. doi: 10.1016/j.gfs.2014.08.002
Audsley, E., Chatterton, J., Graves, A., Morris, J., Murphy-Bokern, D., Pearn, K., et al. (2009). Food, land and greenhouse gases. The effect of changes in UK food consumption on land requirements and greenhouse gas emissions [Internet]. Retrieved from
Bedeke, S. (2012). Food insecurity and copping strategies: a perspective from Kersa district, East Hararghe Ethiopia. Food Science and Quality Management, 5, 19-31.
Biersteker, T. J. (2002). The emergence of privateauthority in global goverenance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Browne J, Laurence S, Thorpe S. (2009). Acting on food insecurity in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: Policy and practice interventions to improve local access and supply of nutritious food. Retrieved from
Chang, H. H., Mishra, A. (2008). Impact of off-farm labor supply on food expenditures of farm households. Food Policy, 33(6), 657–664. doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2008.02.002
Compassion In World Farming (CIWF). (2009). Beyond factory farming: sustainable solutions for animals, people and the planet, compassion in world farming [Internet]. Retrieved from
Coleman-Jensen, A., Nord, M., Andrews, M. (2013). Household Food Security in the United States in 2012 [Internet]. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from
Conforti, P. (2011). Looking ahead in world food and agriculture: Perspectives to 2050 [Internet]. Retrieved from
Cox, R., Wallace, S. (2013). The impact of incarceration on food insecurity among households with children [Internet]. Retrieved from doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2212909
Davis, J., Sonesson, U., Baumgartner, D. U., & Nemecek, T. (2010). Environmental impact of four meals with different protein sources: Case studies in Spain and Sweden. Food Research International, 43(7), 1874–1884. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2009.08.017
Defra. (2008). Comparative life cycle assessment of food commodities procured for UK consumption through a diversity of supply chains [Internet]. Retrieved from
Duhaime, G., & Godmairb, A. (2002). The conditions of sustainable food security: An integrated conceptual framework. Alberta: CCI Press.
Eden, M., Nigatu, R., & Ansha, Y. (2009). The levels, determinants and coping mechanisms of food insecure households in Southern Ethiopia: A Case study of Sidama, Wolaita and Guraghe Zones. Report No. 55. The Drylands Coordination Group. Retrieved from
Edwards-Jones, G., Milà Canals, L., Hounsome, N., Truninger, M., Koerber, G., et al. (2008). Testing the assertion that “local food is best”: The challenges of an evidence-based approach. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 19(5), 265–274. doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2008.01.008.
Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations (FAO). (2011). The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA). Women in Agriculture: closing the gender gap for development. Rome: Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations (FAO).
Food Security Network. (2012). Concept of food security [Internet]. Retrieved from
Foresight. (2011). The future of food and farming: final project report [Internet]. The Government Office for Science, Retrieved from
Garnett, T. (2011). Where are the best opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the food system (including the food chain)? Food Policy, 36, 23–32. doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2010.10.01.
Garnett, T., Charles, J., H., Godfray, C. (2012). Sustainable intensification in agriculture. Navigating a course through competing food system priorities [Internet]. Retrieved from
Garnett, T. (2014). Three perspectives on sustainable food security: efficiency, demand restraint, food system transformation. What role for life cycle assessment? Journal of Cleaner Production, 73, 10–18. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.07.045
Godfray, H. C. J., Beddington, J. R., Crute, I. R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J. F., et al. (2010). Food security: The challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science, 327(5967), 812–818. doi: 10.1126/science.1185383.
Graham, R. D., Welch, R. M., Saunders, D. A., Ortizā€Monasterio, I., Bouis, H. E., Bonierbale, M., et al. (2007). Nutritioussubsistence food systems. Advances in Agronomy, 1–74. doi: 10.1016/s0065-2113(04)92001-9
Green, R. E. (2005). Farming and the fate of wild nature. Science, 307(5709), 550–555. doi: 10.1126/science.1106049
Hamerschlag, K. (2011). Meat eater's guide to climate change + health: Environmental working group [Internet]. Retrieved from
IAAKSTD. (2009). Agriculture at a crossroads; The Global Report [Internet]. Retrieved from
The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). (2011) Feeding future generations – Young rural people today, prosperous farmers tomorrow [Internet]. Retrieved from
Dave, J. M., Evans, A. E., Saunders, R. P., Watkins, K. W., & Pfeiffer, K. A. (2009). Associations among food insecurity, acculturation, demographic factors, and fruit and vegetable intake at home in Hispanic children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(4), 697–701. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2008.12.017.
Keatinge, J. D. H., Yang, R. Y., Hughes, J. A., Easdown, W. J., & Holmer, R. (2011). The importance of vegetables in ensuring both food and nutritional security in attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. Food Security, 3(4), 491–501. doi: 10.1007/s12571-011-0150-3
Khush, G., Lee, S., Cho, J. I. & Jeon, J. S. (2012). Biofortification of crops for reducing malnutrition. Plant Biotechnology Reports, 6(3), 195-202. doi: 10.1007/s11816-012-0216-5
Lahteenkorva, S. S., Lahelma, E. (2001). Food insecurity is associated with past and present economic disadvantage and body mass index. The Journal of Nutrition, 131(11), 2880-4.
Lanjouw, P. (2001). Nonfarm employment and poverty in rural el Salvador. World Development, 29(3), 529–547. doi: 10.1016/s0305-750x(00)00105-4.
Mairon Giovani, L. (2008). Sustainablefood security for local communities in the globalized era: a comparative examination of Brazilian and Canadian case studies (MSc. thesis). Ontario: University of Waterloo
Lobell, D. B., Schlenker, W., & Costa-Roberts, J. (2011). Climate trends and global crop production since 1980. Science, 333(6042), 616–620. doi: 10.1126/science.1204531
Nelson, G.C., Rosegrant, M.W., Koo, J., Robertson, R., Sulser, T., Zhu, T., et al. (2009), Climate change: Impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation [Internet]. Retrieved from
Nemecek, T., Weiler, K., Plassmann, K., Schnetzer, J., Gaillard, G., Jefferies, D., et al. (2012). Estimation of the variability in global warming potential of worldwide crop production using a modular extrapolation approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 31, 106–117. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.03.005
Nord, M. (2009). Food insecurity in households with children: Prevalence, severity, and household characteristics [Internet]. Retrieved from
Oxfam. (2011). Growing a better future: Food justice in a resource-constrained world [Internet]. Retrieved from
Ramankutty, N., Evan, A. T., Monfreda, C., & Foley, J. A. (2008). Farming the planet: 1. Geographic distribution of global agricultural lands in the year 2000. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22(1). doi: 10.1029/2007gb002952
Schmidinger, K., & Stehfest, E. (2012). Including CO2 implications of land occupation in LCAs—method and example for livestock products. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 17(8), 962–972. doi: 10.1007/s11367-012-0434-7.
Sim, S., Barry, M., Clift, R., & Cowell, S. J. (2006). The relative importance of transport in determining an appropriate sustainability strategy for food sourcing. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 12(6), 422–431. doi: 10.1007/s11367-006-0259-3
Sodano, V. (2012). Food policy beyond neo-liberalism. Sociological Landscape - Theories, Realities and Trends. doi: 10.5772/37175.
Soil Association. (2010). Telling Porkies: The Big Fat Lie about Doubling Food Production [Internet]. Retrieved from