Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) of Norms in Rural House Formation in the Cold and Mountainous Province of Ardabil

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate in Architecture, Nazar Research Center for Art, Architecture and Urbanism, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Architecture & Urban Design, Shahid Beheshti University (SBU),Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate professor, Department of Educational Science, Shahid Rajaee University (SRTTU), Tehran, Iran.

4 Associate professor, Department of Urban Planning, Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU), Qazvin, Iran.


The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of norms in the formation of rural houses in the cold and mountainous zones of Ardabil province. Rural settlements with the height of 1500 to 2150 meters above sea level in the cold and mountainous zones of the province were selected through random cluster sampling. The settlements were located in 176 villages 85 of which had a population of over 200 people. Finally, 27 villages were selected as the study sample, 10 residents in each and totally 270 selected in a targeted manner. The research method was of a causal-correlation type conducted to survey and examine the villagers' view of the norms. The participants answered 50 questions on a questionnaire to express their opinions on housing in their villages. The reliability of the questionnaire was found to be approximately α = 0.905. Path analysis and regression analysis were done, and the direct and indirect effects of the variables on the norms of rural house formation were identified. The findings of the study showed that the coherent variables of housing and climate norms, as independent factors, have directly affected the way the houses are formed. Also, economic considerations, scales and proportions, and traditional norms, as intermediary factors, have affected rural housing formation. The study of the effects of these variables on the norms of rural housing formation showed that the proposed model is capable of explaining these norms. The strongest predictor of the rural housing formation norms proved to be economy, scale and proportion, and structural similarity in house construction.


Main Subjects

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