Pathology of the Consequences of Development Plans in Rural Areas by a Mixed Method: A Case Study of Varzaqan County

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Planning and Environmental Sciences, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Planning and Environmental Sciences, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran.

3 PhD Candidate, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Planning and Environmental Sciences, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran


This research aims at the pathology of the consequences of development plans in the rural areas of Varzaqan city. The research was conducted through a mixed method. In terms of purpose, it is functional, and, in nature, it is a descriptive-analytical study. In terms of data collection, it is a mixed type, and it is philosophically based on a pragmatist approach. The statistical population consisted of 132 local experts who participated in a quantitative section by responding to a researcher-made questionnaire and 51 experts who took part in two stages of qualitative semi-structured interviews and observations. Lack of suitable employment opportunities for young people, lack of productive activities, unsuccessful establishment of industries connected with the existing mines in the region, unsuccessful industries and small workshops of agricultural employment, and increasing poverty and social deprivation were the most important findings of the qualitative analysis by the Grounded theory. The results of the goodness-fit assessment obtained from the PLS structural model showed that the proposed model was compatible with the experimental data at an optimal level. Also, in the study area, there was a unified relationship among social, economic, physical and comprehensive consequences. The economic and social consequences of developmental plans were found to have led to certain spatial and comprehensive situations. The analysis of the spatial outcomes with comprehensive implications showed the weakening of rural and agricultural status in national development attempts and the mismatch of measures with the foundations of sustainable development. These two parameters were among the most important variables with high impact coefficients.


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