The Localization of Sustainable Landscape Indicators in Iranian Rural Ecosystem Based on the Mental-Evaluative Images of Stakeholders

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant professor, Department of Urban Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Art, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


Each part of the landscape has a distinctive character, which offers a unique sense of place. Moreover, there are specific cultural backgrounds, which have influenced the settlement patterns of regions and countries. The rural landscape patterns are particular contexts since they have cultural characteristics. As local residents in rural areas tend to use modern technology, preservation of cultural values and natural attractions should not be underestimated. There are many criteria that must be considered in order to achieve sustainability. This research has been done by investigating the sustainable landscape indicators in the Iranian rural ecosystem based on the stakeholders’ attitudes. Iran’s geographical location and natural characteristics import a wide climatic diversity that ranges from semi-arid to subtropical. Therefore, four villages with different climates were selected: 1. Furg, a village in Darmian rural district, South Khorasan province in the hot and dry climate; 2. Anbooh, a village in Roodbar, Gilan province, in the cold and mountainous climate; 3. Dastak, a village in Astane-Ashrafieh, Gilan province, in the moderate rainy climate, and 4. Tabl, a historic village in Gheshm, Hormozgan province, in the hot and humid climate of Iran. The researchers analyzed the rural landscape and defined the main characteristics that shape the sustainable rural landscape, based on the research method. The results indicate that the economy of rural areas has been strongly dependent on natural resources exploitation. Also, the recent technological advancements in exploitation, loss of rural livelihood, and increased social demand for the amenity aspects of these resources have dramatically changed the rural landscape and visual quality.


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