Investigating Typology of Adaptation Strategies of Villagers to Water Shortage in Khuzestan Province: Application of Grounded Theory

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student, Department of Agricultural Extension, Communication and Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension, Communication and Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.

3 Associate Professors, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agriculture and Engineering and Rural Development, Agricultural Sciences and the Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran.


Adaptation to stress is very important to support livelihoods and ensure food security. However, the type of adaptation strategies varies between regions and their socioeconomic and agroecological contexts. Identifying and classifying empirical data-based adaptation methods can help design and implement incentives, rules, or institutional reforms. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to classify and identify types of adaptation to water stress using a qualitative method, Grounded theory. Techniques used to collect data include direct observation, semi-structured interviews, and field notes. Based on the research findings, adaptation strategies were divided into 4 general groups, including changes in agricultural operations, irrigation management, financial and economic management, and social management. Agricultural operations management methods, in turn, include two subcategories of crop management and farm management. Irrigation management includes water-saving and water supply methods. In addition, economic management methods include diversifying income or employment, agricultural insurance, saving money, and receiving loans or credits. Social management has two subcategories of migration and networking and knowledge expansion in order to increase awareness about harm reduction methods.


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