Designing a Sustainable Rural Livelihood Paradigm with Emphasis on the Human Geography

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food Industry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food Industry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran.


This research has been done with the aim of designing a sustainable livelihood model with the cooperative village approach using the grounded theory method. The present study is a qualitative research. The study sample includes 30 experts, managers and experts in the field of cooperation throughout the country who were purposefully selected. Field observations and in-depth interviews in the form of focus groups were used to collect data. The results were extracted from the research data in the coding process (open, axial and selective) in the form of concepts, subcategories and categories using MAXqda12 software. The paradigm model includes conditions (causal, contextual, and intervening), strategy, and outcome. Research findings indicate that climate vulnerability, social vulnerability and economic vulnerability were identified as causal conditions; trends, government support and infrastructure strengthening were identified as background conditions; and financing, market development, market control, and government support as intervening conditions affecting the creation of sustainable livelihoods with the rural cooperative approach. The results show that coping strategies and compromise strategies as strategies for achieving sustainable livelihoods have consequences such as cooperatives, sustainable development, productivity, employment, strengthening social capital and smart agriculture.


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