Identifying the Impact of the Components of Social Capital on the Migration of Villagers by Mediating Role of Place Attachment (Case Study: Jiroft Township)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.


Migration is the most important phenomenon that can endanger the existence and survival of the rural community. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of social capital components and place attachment on the migration of people in the villages of Jiroft County, which was done with a quantitative approach. The statistical population of the study was the active rural population. Krejice and Morgan table was used to determine the sample size (n=382). A stratified random sampling method was used to select the sample. A questionnaire was used for data collection that its validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. Furthermore, in order to assess the reliability of the research tool, Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was calculated (0.71≤α≤0.83). The results of the Pearson correlation analysis showed that increasing the distance between rural and urban areas leads to more migration. Also, the decrease in social capital among the villagers leads to an increase in their migration. The results of path analysis showed that all components of social capital have direct and significant effects on migration, and among these, social participation has the most significant direct effect on rural migration. At the same time, place attachment also has a significant direct negative effect on migration. All components of social capital have a significant direct positive effect on place attachment. This means that the higher the level of social participation, social cohesion, social trust, social awareness and social relations of the people in rural communities, the higher the probability that their place attachment will be increased and consequently, the lower the likelihood of migration among them.


Afrakhteh, H., Azizi, A., & Mehralitabar, M. (2014). The role of social capital on rural development of Chahardangeh district. Journal of Applied research in geographical sciences, 14(34): 27-46. (Persian)
Alimardani, M., Mohammadi, M., & zibaee Farimani, N. (2018). The Effect of Place Attachment- Walking- on Health Issue at Neighborhood Level, Case Study: Motahary Neighborhood in Mashhad City. Journal of Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development 10(21): 193-204. (Persian)
Amin-Bidbakhti, A. A., & Sharifi, N. (2012). Examining the relationship between social capital and the tourism boom in the Caspian Sea coastal areas. Tourism Management Studies, 7(17):121-149. (Persian)
Azizi, F., & Shekari, F. (2018). Modeling the relationship between sense of place, social capital and tourism support. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 11(3), 547-572.‏
Bazi, Kh., Mirzapour, S., & Afrasiyabi, M. (2016). Spatial and locative Consequences of a place sense of belonging in to place in Khorramabad districts. Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design, 2(2): 1-14. (Persian)
Bradley, D. P., Coombes, M., Tranos, E., & Bradley, J. (2009). Sense of place and social capital and the historic built environment: Report of research for English Heritage. Heritage Counts.‏
Brocato, E. D. (2007). Place attachment: an investigation of environments and outcomes in a service context.‏
Byrd, E., Bosley, H., Dronberger, M. (2009). "Comparisons of stakeholder perceptions of tourism impacts in rural eastern North Carolina", Tourism Management, 30 (1): 693–703.
Coleman, J. S. (2009). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American journal of sociology, 94: 95-120.
Cresswell, T. (2014). Place: an introduction. John Wiley & Sons.
Dean, A. J., Fielding, K. S., Lindsay, J., Newton, F. J. & Ross, H. (2016). How social capital influences community support for alternative water sources. Sustainable Cities and Society, 27, 457-466.
Dehghani, A., & Adeli Sardouei, M. (2018). Impact of Rural Tourism Development on Cultural Components of Rural Residents: A Case Study of Jiroft County of Iran. Village and development, 21(1) p 71-90. (Persian)
Dekker, K. (2007). Social capital, neighbourhood attachment and participation in distressed urban areas. A case study in The Hague and Utrecht, the Netherlands. Housing Studies, 22(3), 355-379.‏
Emami, A., Bazdar, M., Safari, M., & Farahnaki, R. (2018). The Determination of Relationship between Sense of Belonging and its Social Indicators, Case Study: Ziarat Village- Golestan. Journal of Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development, 10(21): 11-21. (Persian)
Falahat, M.S. (2006). Concept of sense of place and Its shaping factors. Honar-ha-ye Ziba, 1(26): p57-66. (Persian)
Franke, S. (2005). "Measurement of social capital, Reference Document for Public Policy Research, Development, and Evaluation, Ottawa: Policy Research Institute (now Policy Hori-zons Canada). Canada.
Ghazani, E., Bijani, M., & Chizari, M. (2019). Social Capital Impact Assessment on the prosperity of Ecotourism in Target Tourism Villages in Mazandaran Province. Space Economy & Rural Development, 7(26): p. 211-234. (Persian)
Gray, C. L. (2009). Environment, land, and rural out-migration in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. World Development, 37(2), 457-468.
Grillo, M., Teixeira, M., & Wilson, D. (2010). Residential Satisfaction and Civic Engagement: Understandingthe Causes of Community Participation. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 451-466.
Haidari Sareban, V., Bakhtar, S., & Ziarati, M. (2018). The Impact of Social Capital on Sustainable Development of Agriculture in Rural Areas (Case Study: Kermanshah Province Villages). Geography and Sustainability of Environment, 8(27): p. 59-74. (Persian)
Hidalgo, M. C., & Hernandez, B. (2001). Place attachment: Conceptual and empirical questions. Journal of environmental psychology, 21(3), 273-281.‏
Hosseini Rad, A. (2008). The Impact of Social Capital on Migration to Tehran (Case Study of Non-University Students of Tehran University). Master of Science in Social Sciences. Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran. (Persian)
Hwang, D. (2012). Influence of social capital on community-based action in tourism development: A study of social network analysis. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).‏
Jamshidi, M.K., Mohamadi yegane, B., & Hosseinzadeh, A. (2019). An Analysis of the Effective Influences on Development and Its Role in Emigration. Journal of Scientific Journal Management System, 8(32): 11-22.
Jamshidiha, G.H., Parvaei, S., Piri, S., & Adibhajbagheri, S. (2015). The role of community sense-of-belonging in promoting social participation (Case of Study: Ghezel ghalea neighborhood of Tehran). Urban Sociological Studies, 4(12): p 1-24. (Persian)
Kan, K. (2007). Residential mobility and social capital. Journal of Urban Economics, 61(3), 436-457.‏
Kerman Province Management and Planning Organization. (2016). Second phase studies of provincial preparation. Report not published. (Persian)
Kiani, M., Asadi, A., Varmarzyari, H., & Barati, A. A. (2016). Structural equation and integrated model of causes and effects of rural migration in Kian district of Nahavand. Community Development (Rural and Urban Communities), 8(2): p. 339-358. (Persian)
Kil, N., Holland, S. M., & Stein, T. V. (2014). Place meanings and participatory planning intentions. Society & Natural Resources, 27(5), 475-491.‏
Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 1970. 30(3): p. 607-610.
Lewicka, M. (2010). What makes neighborhood different from home and city? Effects of place scale on place attachment. Journal of environmental psychology, 30(1), 35-51.‏
Loghman, M., Zarabadi, Z.S., & Behzadfar, M. (2019). Investigating the Impact of Social Capital on Satisfaction of Quality of Life in Urban Neighborhoods (Case Study: Sultan Mirahmad and Fin Kashan). Journal of Socio - Cultural Changes, 3(62): 99-123. (Persian)
Long, J., Faught, S. & Johnson, C. (2012). “Roles of community satisfaction and community attachment in the out-migration of rural residents”, Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 11: 1-11.
Mahon, M., Fahy, F., & Cinnéide, M.Ó. (2012). The significance of quality of life and sustainability at the urban–rural fringe in the making of place-based community. Journal of GeoJournal, 77(2): 265-278.
Michelini, J. J. (2013). Small farmers and social capital in development projects: Lessonsfrom failures in Argentina's rural periphery. Journal of Rural Studies, 30: 99-109.
Mihaylov, N., & Perkins, D. D. (2014). Community place attachment and its role in social capital development. Place attachment: Advances in theory, methods and applications, 61.
Mikhak, H., Hafezi, F., & Sadeghloo, T. (2020). Investigating the Causes and Motivations of Reverse Migration Among Rural Migrants (The Study Area: Khorramabad County). Journal of Rural Research, 11(2): 270-285. (Persian)
Mirzaali, M., Karimi, M., & Sasani, N. (2019). Analysis the Impact of Sense of Place and Social Capital on Modernization of old Townships (Case Study: Darbano Neighborhood in Gorgan city). Architecture,  1(4): p. 1-11. (Persian)
Mishra, S., Mazumdar, S., & Suar, D. (2010). Place attachment and flood preparedness. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 187-197.
Mostafavi Saheb, S., Sasanpoor, F., Pooraghdam, M. M., & Sadeghizadeh, A. R. (2018). Role of Urban Signs in Promoting the Place Attachment with an Emphasis on Citizens Mental Image (Case Study: Sanandaj City). Geographical Urban Planning Research (GUPR),  6(2): p. 331-360. (Persian)
Movahedi, R., & Samiyan, M. (2018). Identifying Factors Affecting on Rural Immigration to Sardasht City. Journal of Studies of Human Settlements Planning, 13(1): p. 163-177. (Persian)
Naghdi, A., Vahdat, S., & Sajadzadeh, H. (2016). The Role of Social Capital in Place Attachment in Traditional Neighborhoods (Case Study: City Neighborhoods Hamadan). Urban Studies,  6(18): p.23-52. (Persian)
Nawrotzki, R.J., Riosmena, F., Hunter, L.M., & Runfola, D.M. (2015). Ampli fication or suppression: Social networks and the climate change—migration association in rural Mexico.Global Environmental Change, 35, 463- 474.
Osita-Njoku, A., & Chikere, P. (2015). Rural-urban Migration and the Underdevelopment in Selected Rural Communities in Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 1-10.‏
Park, D.-B., Nunkoo, R., & Yoon, Y.-S. (2015). Rural residents’ attitudes to tourism and the moderating effects of social capital. Tourism Geographies, 17(1), 112-133. 
Payton, M. A., Fulton, D. C., & Anderson, D. H. (2005). Influence of place attachment and trust on civic action: A study at Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge. Society and Natural Resources, 18(6), 511-528.‏
Rabani, R., Taheri , Z., & Roosta, Z. (2012).The study of reasons of reverse immigration motivations and their effects on economical and social development: a case study of the village-dwelling immigrants in Tonekabon and Ramsar cities. Research and Urban Planning, 2(5): p. 83-108. (Persian)
Rabbani Khourasgani, A., Sedigh Ooreie, G., & Khandehru, M. (2010). An Investigation of Social Capital and the Factors Affecting its Development in the Community Level. Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2): p119-149. (Persian)
Rahimi Faizabadi, F., Yazdanpanah, M., Forouzani, M., Mohammad Zadeh, S., & Burton, R. (2017). Explanation of Farmers' Water Conservation Behaviors Using Extended Planned Behavior Theory: The Case of Farmers in Aleshtar County. Iranian Agricultural Extension and Education, 12 (2), 1-17. (Persian)
Rahimi, H., & Aghababaei, R. (2015). An Analysis of Relationship between Social Capital and Quality of Work Environment in University of Kashan One Base View of Faculty Members. Social Welfare, 14(55): p. 199-225. (Persian)
Rahnama, M.R., & Razavi, M.M. (2012). An Study of Sense of place Effect on Social Capital and Participation in Mashhad’s Neighborhoods. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary Va Shahrsazi, 17(2): p. 29-36.
Riahi, V., Jamshidi, A. R., Jomeini, D., & Cheraghi, R. (2014). An evaluation of social capital and its influencing factors among villagers of Kermanshah province (Case study: Uramanat Region). Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 2(4): p. 1-24. (Persian)
Romiani, A., Anabestani, A. A., & Valaei, M. (2016). An Analysis of the Effects of Social Capital on the Rural sustainable development of West Romeshgan Rural District - Koohdasht County. Journal of Geographic Space, 15(52): 97-115. (Persian)
Rostamalizadeh, V., & Ghasemi Ardahaee, A. (2017). Stay or Leave; Migration Challenges of Rural Youth. Journal of Rural Research, 8(2): 282-299. (Persian)
Rostamalizadeh, V.G., & Ghasemi- Ardahaee, A. (2019). Social Factors Affecting the Migration of Rural Youth with an Emphasis on Place Attachment. Population association of iran,12 (24): 43-67. (Persian)
Rutten, R., Westlund, H., & Boekema, F. (2010). The spatial dimension of social capital. European Planning Studies, 18(6), 863-871.‏
Saadi, H., Bahrami, L., & Afsharkohan, J. (2015). Causes of Immigration of Villagers in Hamadan Province (Malayer County, Jokar region). Social Sciences, 11(1): p. 73-53. (Persian)
Sadra, A. (2012). Social Capital and Emigration Tendency. (MA thesis). Faculty of Humanities, University of Guilan. (Persian)
Sajjadzadeh, H. (2013). Role of Place Attachment in Making Identity for Urban Squares (A Case Study: Avicenna Square, Hamedan). The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh- E Nazar, 10(25): 69-78.
Savari, M., & Abdeshahi, A. (2019). Analysis of the Role of Social Capital to Improve the Resilience of Rural Households in Drought Conditions in the County of Divandarreh. Journal of Rural Research, 10(2): 214-229. (Persian)
Sharifi, A., & Zare Shahabadi, A. (2018). Investigation of Factors Affecting the Rural People’s Tendency to Urban Migration: A Case Study of Garizat Rural District in Yazd Province of Iran. Journal of Village and development, 2(81): 55-74. (Persian)
Sharifzadeh, M. S., Abdollahzadeh, G. H., Azhdarpour, A. R., & Sharifi, M. (2017). Role of social capital in promoting sense of place (Case: rural areas in Zaboul County). Social Capital Management, 2017. 4(3): p. 375-403. (Persian)
Shayan, H., & Kohnepushi, S.H. (2013). Analysis of the causes of rural-urban migration (Case study: Khav and Myrabad District, Marivan County). Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 2(3): p. 115-141. (Persian)
Sheikhi, M., Amini, S., & Nezami, A. (2015). A comparative study of the place of sense of belonging in formal and informal settlements (Case study: New Town of Parand and Nasim Shahr). Social Sciences, 22(69): p. 45-74. (Persian)
Smith, J. W., Siderelis, C., Moore, R. L., & Anderson, D. H. (2012). The effects of place meanings and social capital on desired forest management outcomes: A stated preference experiment. Landscape and Urban Planning, 106(2), 207-218.‏
Statistical Center of Iran. Labor Force Survey Results. (2016). Summer 2016, (Persian) 
Stedman, R. C. (2003). Is it really just a social construction?: The contribution of the physical environment to sense of place. Society &Natural Resources, 16(8), 671-685.‏
Tavakolinia, J., Afrasiabe Rad, M. S., & Boochani, M. H. (2016). Assessing the feeling of spatial belonging and its Social Capital effects in dilapidated urban contexts (Case study: Sahlabad neighborhood of Shiraz). Journal of Geography and urban planning of Zagros landscape, 7(25): 1-21. (Persian)
Tavakoly, M., & Mousavi, S. M. (2009). Analysis of Sense of Place Effect Rulal Women's Shia Frontiersmen on Migration in Sistan Region. Shiite women, 21(6): p. 161-184. (Persian)
Trell, E. M., Bettina, V. H. & Huigen, P. (2012). ‘It’s good to live in Järva-Jaani but we can’t stay here’: Youth and belonging in rural Estonia, Journal of Rural Studies, 28 (2): 139-148.
Ujang, N., & Zakariya, K. (2015). The notion of place, place meaning and identity in urban regeneration. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 170, 709-717.‏
Valibeigi, M, Saeidi Motlagh, M. H., & Heidari, G. (2017). Societal Capital Constituents Contributing to Security Feeling in Urban Places (Case Study: Qazvin City). Societal Security Studies,1396(51): p. 207-229. (Persian)
Valizadeh, N., Bijani, M., & Abbasi, E. (2018). Farmers’ active participation in water conservation: Insights from a survey among farmers in Southern regions of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. J. Agr. Sci. Tech.(JAST), 20(5), 895-910.‏
Van Beuningen, J., & Schmeets, H. (2013). Social capital in 2009: An index for theNetherlands. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 72, 73-90.‏
Williams, D. R., & Vaske, J. J. (2003). The measurement of place attachment: Validity and generalizability of a psychometric approach. Forest Science, 49(6), 830-840.