Adaptation: Continuity Activity Pattern in Rural Housing Typology Changes in Eshkorat, Gilan

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MA Student, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Golestan University, Gorgan, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Golestan University, Gorgan, Iran.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of adaptation of the system of activities to changes in the configuration of native housing and rural engineering through classification of activities and measurement of syntactic data of houses. For this purpose, 382 houses from two types of rural housing in Eshkorat, Guilan were randomly selected according to the method based on purpose and considerations. Structured interviews, observation and recording of activities were used to analyze the activities. Also, chi-square, balloon and cluster analysis were used to find the differences, as well as the most important activity and its place. The results generally showed that the two types of housing have different configurations that have caused the classification of activities, their location and the relationship between them in these housings is different. However, despite the change in the spatial configuration, the system of activities has not changed and the residents have adapted to the desired spaces. It was found that residents adapt to spatial changes through the categorization of activities, choosing the location of similar features and multi-functional spaces without deleting activities, which is due to cultural and social laws. Residents' adaptability has enabled them to use all the spaces of the house and to coordinate with the residential environment to meet their needs, values and behaviors. The findings confirm the need to pay attention to adaptability in the syntactic analysis of residential environments.


Bafna, S. (2003). Space syntax: A brief introduction to its logic and analytical techniques. Environment and Behavior, 35(1), 17–29.
Barker, R. G. (1968). Ecological psychology.
Beisi, J. (1995). Adaptable housing or adaptable people? Experience in Switzerland gives a new answer to the questions of housing adaptability. Architecture & Comportement/Architecture & Behaviour, 11(2), 139–162.
Behforooz, F. (1996). Dominant fields in human geography. 188, 91.
Bostrom, J.A., Mace, R., & Long, M. (1987). Adaptable housing : a technical manual for implementing adaptable dwelling unit specifications. Diane Publishing Company., 77.
Brown, F., Tahar, B. (2001). Comparative Analysis of M’zabite and Other Berber Domestic Spaces. Symposium A Quarterly Journal In Modern Foreign Literatures.
Coolen, H. (2008). The Meaning of Dwelling Features: Conceptual and Methodological Issues, Volume 24 of Sustainable Urban Areas. In Henry Coolen (Ed.), The meaning of dwelling features Conceptual and methodological issues. IOS Press.
Daneshgar Moghadam, G., Habibi, H., & Einifar, A. (2011). The analysis of the social nature of the physical environment influenced by the perception of nature in the human environment. Fine Arts, 3(45), 27–38.
Douglas, J. (2006). Building adaptation. Second ed.
Eid, Dina, K., Shehayeb & Yaldiz, Y. (2004). Determinants of Activity Patterns in Egyptian Homes: A space syntax analysis of use. Paper to Be Presented at the ENHR ConferenceJuly 2nd-6th 2004, Cambridge, UK.
Einifar, A. (2003). A model for flexibility in traditional Iranian housing. Journal of Fine Arts, 13, 64–77.
Friedman, A. (2002). The adaptable house: designing homes for change. 271.
Gibson, J. J. (1996). The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. Boston: Hughton Mifflin.
Groak, S. (1996). The idea of building: Thought and action in the design and protection of buildings. Journal of Management in Engineering, 12(4), 15–17.
Habraken, NJ. (1998). The Structure of the Ordinary, Form and Control in the Built Environment, The MIT Press, Great Britian.
Haviland, D. S. (1967). The Activity: Space, A Least Common Denominator For Architectural Programming, ERIC Clearinghouse, Washington DC
Haq, S. (1999). Can space syntax predict environmental cognition. Space Syntax Second International Symposium, 40.1-40.14.
Heidari, A.A., Kiaee, M., & Soltanzadeh, H. (2019). Measuring the flexibility of the space system using the space arrangement technique. Garden Comment Magazine, 71(16), 15.
Heidari, A. A., Qasemian Asl, I., Kiaee, M. (2017). Spatial construction analysis of traditional Iranian houses using space method, case study: Comparison of Yazd, Kashan and Isfahan houses. Iranian Islamic City Studies Quarterly, Year 7, Issue 28, Summer, 2017, 21-33., 28, 12.
Hillier, B., & Penn, A. (2004). Rejoinder to carlo ratti. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 31(4), 501–511.
Hillier, B. (1996). Space is the machine, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Hillier, B., Hanson, J., & Garham, H. (1986). Ideas are in things Enviroment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 14, 363-385.
Ishaqi, M., Bayat, P., Foroozandeh, M. (2014). Investigation and role of flexibility in traditional Iranian-Islamic housing Case study of Haj Hossein Ghafouri Qazvinis. National Conference on Architecture, Urban Planning and Sustainable Development, 9.
Lang, J. (1987). Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of the Behavioural Sciences in Environmental Design,. Newyork: Van No Strand Reinhild Company Inc.
Lang, J. (2003). Creation of architectural theory; The Role of Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design. University of Tehran Press; First Edition, Tehran.
Manewa, A., & Gibb, P. A. (2009). DR. CHRISTINE PASQUIRE Loughborough University Loughborough, UK. 10.
Marcus, L. (2015). Interaction rituals and co-presence--linking humans to humans in space syntax theory. Proceedings of the Tenth International Space Syntax Symposium. London: UCL Space Syntax Laboratory.
Moffatt, S., & Russell, P. (2001). Assessing the Adaptability of Buildings Energy-Related Environmental Impact of Buildings Annex 31. November.
Morais, F. (2018). DepthSpace3D: A new digital tool for 3D space syntax analysis. Formal Methods in Architecture and Urbanism; Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Cambridge, UK.
Nourtaghani, A., & Azadbakht, J. (2017). The relationship between system of activities and configuration Kuhdasht houses with space syntax approach. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary Va Shahrsazi, 22(1), 65-74.
Qara-Beglo, M., & Farrokhi, S. (2018). A Comparative Study of Location-Behavior Patterns in Homes Before and After the Earthquake in Sarand Village. Quarterly Journal of Rural Research, 10(1), 34–49.
Perin, C. (1970). With man in mind: An interdisciplinary prospectus for environmental design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Rabeneck, A. D. S. & P. T. (1974). Housing – Flexibility/Adaptability. Architectural Design, Vol. 44), Pp. 76–91.
Rapoport, A. (1990). Systems of activities and systems of settings. In Susan Kent (Ed.) Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space. Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Rapoport, A. (2005). Culture, Architecture, and Design (Amos Rapoport (ed.)). Locke Science Publishing Co., Inc.
Richard, R. B. (2006). Individualisation & Industrialisation. International Conference On Adaptable Building Structures.
Saatci, M. (2015). Spatial hierarchy on vernacular houses in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey, Proceedings of the 10th International Space Syntax Symposium, pp: 10.1-10.17
Schnädelbach, H. (2010). Adaptive Architecture: A Conceptual Framework. Proceedings of MediaCity 2010, 532–555.
Schneider T, T. J. (2007). Flexible Housing, UK, Elsiver Press.
Scott, M. M. (2005). A powerful theory and a paradox: Ecological psychologists after Barker. Environment and Behavior, 37(3), 295–329.
Statistical Center of Iran. (2016). General Census of Population and Housing.
Turner, A., & Pinelo, J. (2010). Introduction to UCL Depthmap, 10 September 2010 Version 10.08.00r. UCL.
Wicker, A. W. (2012). Perspectives on Behavior Settings: With Illustrations From Allison’s Ethnography of a Japanese Hostess Club. Environment and Behavior, 44(4), 474–492.
Yazdanfar, A., Mousavi, M., & Zargar Daghigh, H. (2008). Analysis of the spatial structure of the city of Tabriz in the Fortress area using the Space Syntax techniqu. Monthly International Journal of Road and Construction, 67, 58–69.
Zako, R. (2005). The Power of the Veil: Gender Inequality in the Domestic Setting of Traditional Courtyard Houses. In: Courtyard Housing: Past, Present and Future, Edward, B., M. Sibley, M. Hakmi and P. Land (Eds.) Taylor and Francis Group, London, ISBN: 10: 0415262720, pp: 65-70.