Identifying and Evaluating the Visual Organization Factors Affecting the Improvement of the Physical Appearance of Iranian Villages

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.


Today, the nature of the design and monitoring the visual aspects affecting the enrichment and formation of the rural environment and the villagers’ experiences of its physical appearance face shortcomings. It is necessary to identify the factors of the visual organization and study its effect on the physical appearance of the village to provide a more comprehensive description of this phenomenon. This research is exploratory in nature and descriptive survey in terms of the data collection method. The data required for the research were collected through documentary content analysis and the Delphi survey. The statistical population consists of 10 people in the Delphi section and 265 experts in the survey section who were interviewed after the validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by professors and Cronbach's alpha technique. To analyze the research data, one-sample t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and Regression Analysis were used, the results of which showed that out of 53 evaluated indicators in four aspects of aesthetics-formal, activity-functional, cognitive-perceptual, and biological-natural, decorations and materials had the highest effect with an overall weight of 4.52, and the balance indicator with the score of 2.24 had the lowest impact on the visual organization of the village. Furthermore, the research findings showed a significant positive relationship between the stated factors and indicators. According to the regression analysis, 61% of the factors of the visual organization result in improving the physical appearance of the village. Among the four factors, the cognitive-perceptual factor with the impact factor of 0.378 had the most effect on the improvement of the physical appearance of the village. 


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