An Analysis of the Effects of Social Capital on the Sense of Spatial Belonging of Rural Households in Drought Conditions in Dorud County

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agriculture Engineering and Rural Development, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran.

2 MSc., Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agriculture Engineering and Rural Development, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran.


Drought is one of the natural disasters that is very common, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. This phenomenon can occur in any region and affect humans and the environment; however, its effects in rural areas are much greater than in other areas due to the dependence of livelihood on rainfall. As a result, past droughts have severely reduced the sense of spatial belonging of rural households. Therefore, the factors that can affect this field are undeniably necessary. Accordingly, this study was conducted with the general purpose of studying the effects of social capital on the sense of spatial belonging of rural households in drought conditions. The statistical population of the study included all rural households - farmers of Dorud County. The sample size consisted of 375 heads of households selected for the study using the Krejcie and Morgan table. For collecting data, a questionnaire was designed. The validity of this questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data analysis was performed in two sections of descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS23 and Lisrel8.54 software. The results of grouping rural households showed that they are not in a good position in terms of spatial belonging and social capital. In addition, the results of structural equation modeling showed that the dimensions of social capital with a coefficient of explanation of 51% (γ = 0.71, t = 11.89) have a positive and significant effect on the sense of spatial belonging of rural households in drought conditions.


Agricultural Jihad. (2019). Investigation of the effects of drought in Lorestan province.
Ahmadi, A., Shabanali Fami, H., Nasrabadi, M., Motee, N. (2015). Designing a Model for Improving Household Food Security in Small-Scale Farming Systems of Mazandran Province. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Economics and Agricultural Development, University of Tehran (In Persian). 
Akbar, M. S., & Aldrich, D. P. (2018). Social capital's role in recovery: evidence from communities affected by the 2010 Pakistan floods. Disasters, 42(3), 475-497.
Alcorta, L., Smits, J., Swedlun, Haley J., & De Jong, E. (2020). The ‘Dark Side’ of Social Capital: A Cross- National Examination of the Relationship between Social Capital and Violence in Africa. Social Indicators Research 149, 445-465.
Aldrich, D.P. (2019). Black Wave: How Connections and Governance Shaped Recovery from Japan’s 3.11 Disasters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Aldrich, D. P., Page-Tan, C., & Fraser, T. (2018). A Janus-faced resource: Social capital and resilience trade-offs. In Trump, B. D., Florin, M.-V., & Linkov, I. (Eds.). IRGC resource guide on resilience (vol. 2): Domains of resilience for complex interconnected systems. Lausanne, CH: EPFL International Risk Governance Center.
Aldrich, D. P., & Meyer, M. A. (2015). Social capital and community resilience. American Behavioral Scientist, 59(2), 254-269.
Alipur, H., Chaharsoghi Amin, H. Gharib, A. (2013). Investigating the effects of drought on the socio-economic status of farmers, a case study: wheat farmers in Nehbandan, watershed management research and construction), No 99. (In Persian)
Amiri, B., Sabet Dizavandi, L. Nemati, J. (2014). Strategies to deal with drought and water crisis in Lorestan province. The Second National Conference on Environmental Risks of Zagros, Khorramabad, Irani (In Persian). 
Amirkafi, M., Fathi, Sh. (2011). Investigating the effective factors on attachment to a residential neighborhood (Case study of Kerman). Iranian Journal of Social Studies, 5(1): 12. (In Persian)
Azadi, Y., Yazdanpanah, M., Forouzani, M., & Mahmoudi, H. (2019). Farmers' adaptation choices to climate change: a case study of wheat growers in Western Iran. Journal of Water and Climate Change, 10(1), 102-116.
Bazurto-Gomez, N., Torres, J. C., Gutierrez, R., Chamorro, M., Bulger, C., Hernandez, T., & Guerra-Gomez, J. A. (2018). An Information Visualization Application Case to Understand the World Happiness Report. In 4th Ibero American Workshop on Human Computer Interaction, Springer, pp. 44-56.
Butler, PG., Wanamaker, AD., Scourse, JD., Richardson, CA. and Reynolds DJ. (2013). Variability of marine climate on the North Icelandic Shelf in a 1357-year proxy archive based on growth increments in the bivalve Arctica islandica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 373, 141-51.
Chen, H., Wang, J., & Huang, J. (2014). Policy support, social capital, and farmers’ adaptation to drought in China. Global Environmental Change, 24, 193-202.
Chenani, E., Yazdanpanah, M., Baradaran, M., Azizi-Khalkheili, T., & Najafabadi, M. M. (2021). Barriers to climate change adaptation: Qualitative evidence from southwestern Iran. Journal of Arid Environments, 189, 104487.
Cholbaki, M. Mobarki, M. (2005). “Analyzing the relationship between social capital and crime at the micro and macro levels.” Iranian Journal of Sociology, 6(2), 12. [In Persian].
Chou, J.S., Tserng, H.P., Lin, C., Yeh, C.P. (2012). Critical factors and risk allocation for PPP policy: comparison between HSR and general infrastructure projects. Transp. Policy 22, 36–48.
Coleman, J. (1990). Foundations of Social Theory Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge.
Coleman, J.S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology 94, 95-120.
Dang, H. L., Li, E., Nuberg, I., & Bruwer, J. (2014). Understanding farmers’ adaptation intention to climate change: a structural equation modelling study in the Mekong delta, Vietnam. Environmental science and policy, 41, 11-22.
Dixon, J., Gulliver, A., & Gibbon, D. (2001). Farming Systems and Poverty: Improvement Farmers’ Livelihood in a changing World, Rome and Washington D.C: FAO and World Bank. John Dixon and Aidan Gulliver with David Gibbon.
Ericksen, P. J. (2008). What is the vulnerability of a food system to global environmental change? Ecology and Society, 13(2), 14.
FAO. (2015). The Impact of Natural Hazards and Disasters on Agriculture and Food Security and Nutrition. FAO, Rome.
Fraser, T. (2021). Japanese social capital and social vulnerability indices: Measuring drivers of community resilience 2000–2017. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 52, 101965.
Gangadharappa, H.V., Pramod, K. T. M., Shiva, K. H. G. (2007). Gastric floating drug delivery systems: a review. Indian J. Pharm. Ed. Res. 41, 295–305.
Ghanbari, Y., Arifar, V., Mahroie, Z. (2018). Structural equivalent modeling of the effect of agricultural situation in the common exploitation system before and after drought on the sustainability of rural population (Case study: Fasa city), geography and development, 50: 143-160. (In Persian)
Ghayasvand, A. (2009). The effect of social capital on the quality of life of urban residents. Consulting Engineer Quarterly, 45: 41. (In Persian)
Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology 78 (6), 1360-1380.
Harpham, C., & Dawson, C. W. (2006). The effect of different basis functions on a radial basis function network for time series prediction: A comparative study. Neurocomputing, 69(16-18), 2161-2170.
Hernandez, B. (2010). The Role of Place Identity and Place Attachment in Breaking Environmental Protection Laws, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 30, No. 2, PP. 281-288.
Hou, L., Huang, J., Wang, J. (2017). Early warning information, farmers’ perceptions of, and adaptations to drought in China. Climatic Change 141, 197–212.
IFRC. (2016). World, Disasters Report. Lyon, France, 2016.
Kawachi, I. (2001). Social capital for health and human development. Development 44, 31–35.
Leah, J., Pradel, W., Cole, D. C., Prain, G., Creed-Kanashiro, H., & Carrasco, M. V. (2013). Determinants of household food access among small farmers in the Andes: examining the path. Public health nutrition, 16(01), 136-145.
Mafi-Gholami, D., Zenner, E. K., Jaafari, A., Ward, R. D. (2019). Modeling multi-decadal mangrove leaf area index in response to drought along the semi-arid southern coasts of Iran. Sci. Total Environ. 656, 1326–1336.
Malekan, A., Khani, F., Motei – langrodi, S. H., Darban-Astaneh, A. (2020). Analysis of Social Capital on Promoting Drought Resilience (Case Study: Kangavar County Villages). 10 (38): 65-80. (In Persian)
Martin, K. S., Rogers, B. L., Cook, J. T., & Joseph, H. M. (2004). Social capital is associated with decreased risk of hunger. Social science & medicine, 58(12), 2645-2654.
Meteorology of Lorestan Province. (2019). Investigation of rainfall status and drought in Lorestan province.
Mishra, A.K., Singh, V.P. (2010). A review of drought concepts. J. Hydrol. 391 (1–2), 202–216
Miyan, M.A. (2015). Droughts in Asian least developed countries: Vulnerability and sustainability. Weather. Clim. 7, 8-2.
Morse, Ch., & Mudgett, J. (2017). Longing for Landscape: Homesickness and Place Attachment Among Rural Out-Migrants in the 19th and 21st Centuries, Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 50, No. 3, PP. 95-103.
Naghdi, A., Vahdat, S., Sajadzadeh, H. (2016). The role of social capital in attachment to place in traditional neighborhoods (case study, neighborhoods of Hamadan). Urban sociological studies, 6(18): 23-50. (In Persian)
Pendley, S. C., Mock, N. B., & Theall, K. P. (2020). How you measure matters; defining social capital in drought-prone areas. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 50, 101715.
Proshansky, H.M., Fabian, A.K., & Kaminoff, R. (1983). Place-identity: physical world socialization of the self, Journal of environmental psychology, 3, 57-83.
Pulwarty, R., Sivakumar, M.V.K. (2014). Information systems in a changing climate: Early warnings and drought risk management. Weather. Clim. 3, 14-21.
Putnam, R. (1993). The prosperous community: Social capital and public life. The american prospect, 13(Spring), Vol. 4. Available online: http://www. prospect. org/print/vol/13 (accessed 7 April 2003).
Radan, F. (2019). Predicting social vitality based on the social capital of female students. Rural Management Quarterly, 6(2): 219-236. (In Persian)
Rahnema, M. R., Razavi, M. M. (2012). Investigating the effect of sense of spatial belonging on social capital and participation in neighborhoods of Mashhad. Beautiful Magazine - Architecture and Urban Planning, 17 (2): 13. (In Persian)
Renzaho, A. M., & Mellor, D. (2010). Food security measurement in cultural pluralism: Missing the point or conceptual misunderstanding? Journal of Nutrition, 26(1), 1-9.
Rjaie, S. A., Pourahmad, A., Abasi Falah, M. (2012). Investigating the relationship between social capital and the feeling of social security Case study: Varamin city. Geography, 14 (48): 31-50. (In Persian)
Savari, M., Damaneh, H. E., & Damaneh, H. E. (2022). Drought vulnerability assessment: Solution for risk alleviation and drought management among Iranian farmers. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 67, 102654.
Savari, M., & Shokati Amghani, M. (2021). Factors influencing farmers’ adaptation strategies in confronting the drought in Iran. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23, 4949-4972.
Savari, M., & Zhoolideh, M. (2021). The role of climate change adaptation of small-scale farmers on the households’ food security level in the west of Iran. Development in Practice, 1-15.
Savari, M., Zhoolideh, M., & Khosravipour, B. (2021a). Explaining pro-environmental behavior of farmers: A case of rural Iran. Current Psychology, 1-19.
Savari, M., Abdeshahi, A., Gharechaee, H., & Nasrollahian, O. (2021b). Explaining farmers’ response to water crisis through theory of the norm activation model: Evidence from Iran. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 60, 102284.
Savari, M., Eskandari Damaneh, H., & Damaneh, H. E. (2021c). Factors influencing farmers’ management behaviors towardcoping with drought: evidence from Iran. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 64(11), 2021-2046
Savari, M., Sheykhi, H., & Amghani, M. S. (2020a). The role of educational channels in the motivating of rural women to improve household food security. One Health, 10, 100150.
Savari, M., Damaneh, H. E., & Damaneh, H. E. (2020b). Factors influencing local people’s participation in sustainable forest management. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 13(13), 1-13.
Savari, M., Abdeshahi, A. (2019). Analysis of the Role of Social Capital in Improving the Resilience of Rural Households in Drought Conditions in Diwandara County, Quarterly Journal of Rural Research, 10(2): 12. (In Persian).
Savari, S., Shabanali Fami, H., & Daneshvar Ameri, Z. (2015). Rural Women's Empowerment in Improving Household Food Security in the Divandarreh County. Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 3(8), 107-121. 
Savari, M., Ebrahimi-Maymand, R., & Mohammadi-Kanigolzar, F. (2013). The Factors influencing the application of organic farming operations by farmers in Iran. Agris on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 5(665-2016-44970), 179-187.
Shakibazadeh, E., Rashidian, A., Larijani, B., Shojaeezadeh, D., Forouzanfar, M.H., Karimi Shahanjarini, A. (2010). “Perceived Barriers and Self-efficacy: Impact on Self-care Behaviors in Adultswith Type2 Diabetes.” Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, 15(4):69-78. 
Sharafi, L., Zarafshani, K., Keshavarz, M., Azadi, H., & Van Passel, S. (2021). Farmers' decision to use drought early warning system in developing countries. Science of The Total Environment, 758, 142761.
Smiley, K., Howell, J., & Elliot, J. (2018). Disasters, Local Organizations, and Poverty in the USA, 1998 to 2015. Population and Environment 40 (2): 115–35.
Stedman, R. C. (2003). 'Is it really a social construction? The contribution of physical environment to Sense of place', Society
Szreter, S., & Woolcock, M. (2004). Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health. International Journal of Epidemiology 33 (4), 650– 667,
Turton, C. (2000). The sustainable livelihoods approach and programmed development in Cambodia, Working paper 130, London: Overseas Development Institute.
Ulrich-Schad, J. D. Henly, M. & Safford, T. G. (2013). The role of community assessments, place, and the great recession in the migration intentions of rural Americans. Rural Sociology, 78(3), 371-398
Woolcock, M. (1998). Social capital and economic development: toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and Society 27:151–208.
Woolcock, M. (2010). The Rise and Routinization of Social Capital, 1988–2008. Annual Review of Political Science 13, 469-487.
Yoon, D.K., Kang, J.E., & Brody, S.D. (2016). A measurement of community disaster resilience in Korea. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 59(3), 436-460.
Zaire, A., Hashemi, Sh., Golabi, S. (2019). A study of rural architecture design in promoting the sense of spatial belonging of resident’s Case study: Ghaslan village, Qorveh County. Shabak scientific journal. 5(4): 24. (In Persian)
Zhang, L., Hu, J., Li, Y., & Pradhan, N. S. (2018). Public-private partnership in enhancing farmers’ adaptation to drought: Insights from the Lujiang Flatland in the Nu River (Upper Salween) valley, China. Land use policy, 71, 138-145.
Zobayri, H., Karimi, Z. (2013). “The effect of social cohesion on economic development (cross-country study with panel data approach).” Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research, 14(14), 41. [In Persian].
Zwiers, S., Markantoni, M., & Dirk S. (2016). The Role of Change- and Stability-Oriented Place Attachment in Rural Community Resilience: A Case Study in South-West Scotland, Community Development Journal, Vol. 51, No. 4, PP. 2-20.