Food Security and Factors Affecting It in Rural Societies of Bushehr Province

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Molasani, Iran.

2 Master student of Rural Development / Khuzestan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources / Mollasani / Iran

3 ramin

4 Assistant ProfessorŲŒ Center of Agricultural researches

Abstract

Introduction
Nowadays, food security is one of the most impotant concerns of different societies (Dzanku, 2019). Based on the definition of FAO, food security is physical, social and economic access of all people in all time to enogh, secure and nourishing food to have an active and healthy life (Vipham et al., 2020; Jiren et al., 2020; Walls et al., 2019). In Iran, food security has always been one of the main objectives of agricultural and rural development plans in the past and it has been one of the strategic goals and priorities of future long-term plans such as the 20-year vision document (Shokri & Assari Arani, 2020). Rural areas play an important role in national economy of countries (Faraji Sabokbar et al., 2015). Studies conducted in Iran show that the majority of people with nutritional problems live in rural areas. Therefore, Iran's rural community often struggles with food insecurity (Savari, 2019). Therefore, the main objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting food security in rural areas of Bushehr province.

Methodology
In this study, the scale designed by the US Agricultural ministry was used to group the food security condition of rural households in Busher province. Based on the conceptual model of McCarthy et al. (2018), the four dimensions of access, achievement, use and stability of food were investigated separately. Hierarchical regression was also used to investigate the factors affecting food security. The statistical population was rural households in Dashtestan and Tangestan counties in Bushehr province that a sample of 380 of them was selected based on Krejcie and Morgan Table. Data analysis was performed in desvriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS18.

Results
According to the results, only 38.68% of the households have food security. Therefore, it can be said that the rural areas of Bushehr province have no suitable situation of food security. The results of examining the status of various dimensions of food security showed that in all four dimensions of food security, only about 30% of the population are in good condition. According to the results of hierarchical regression, economic, geographical and social factors can explain about 36.5, 11.2 and 9% of the total variance of food security, respectively. Among the economic factors, the variables of irrigated land, savings, number livestock, non-agricultural sector income, product diversity, debt, value of vehicle assets, monthly installments, having a second job and number of household employees, among the factors Social, variables of head of household, spouse literacy, number of children, dependency burden, household size and number of literate people and among geographical factors, variables of distance from agricultural sales center, sales through intermediaries, product sales Directly, investment in the city, distance from the city center and investment of urban people in the rural areas have a positive and significant effect on improving food security.

Disscusion
Among the economic factors affecting food security, the variables of crop area, crop diversity, having a second job and the number of livestock have an important effect on food security. Therefore, in order to increase the food security of households, it is suggested that the government expand financial and technical support to increase the cultivation of crops such as dates. Rural farming households should also pursue a policy of crop diversity in order to counter the risk and increase food security. These households can also be supported to improve food security through targeted subsidy support, adequate food subsidies, and the expansion of self-sufficiency schemes (carpet weaving, sewing, beekeeping, poultry farming, etc.). It is also possible to help develop rural livestock by providing facilities and remove barriers to small-scale livestock farming in rural areas. Among the social variables affecting food security, we can mention the number of literate people in the family as well as the literacy level of the family spouse. In this regard, formal and informal education should be expanded in the villages. Among the geographical factors, the distance to the city center, the distance to the center for the sale of agricultural products, as well as the investment of urban people in the village, are of particular importance in creating food security for households. Therefore, efforts should be made to shorten the marketing path as much as possible and provide the ground for the presence of urban investors in the villages, as well as prevent the migration of investments by expanding welfare facilities in the villages.

Conclussion
The study of food security of rural households in Bushehr province showed that more than two thirds of the rural population of this city suffer from some form of food insecurity. Also, a study of various aspects of food security showed that about 70% of the population is not in a good position in all aspects of food security. Economic, social and geographical factors explain the highest percentage of variance in food security, respectively.

Keywords



Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 05 March 2022
  • Receive Date: 30 October 2021
  • Revise Date: 14 February 2022
  • Accept Date: 22 February 2022