Investigating the Mentality of Experts in the Integrative Spatial Quality in Rural Public Spaces

Document Type : Thesis Article


1 Department of Urban Planning, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.

2 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, West Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Several studies have been conducted on the formation of "spatial quality” in recent decades. But a tangible thing so far is the lack of attention to its holistic approach in the field of urban planning. The idea of "spatial quality" in rural areas, has raised a new thematic field. Therefore, despite the importance of spatial quality, in the literature on this issue at the level of public spaces, an efficient framework of factors has not been developed. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify criteria affecting it in order to evaluate the spatial quality in rural public spaces. This research has a mixed method (quantitative-qualitative) which is expeditionary in terms of the nature of the study and in terms of data collection is descriptive-survey. The study population is 48 experts who non-randomly filled a questionnaire obtained from the analysis of documentary content and the Delphi survey. The three dominant mental patterns for specialists are physical (aesthetic), functional and semantic, respectively. The highest percentage of variances is related to physical (aesthetic) mental pattern with 12.76%, which indicates the importance of this factor. The extracted factors of Delphi stages were analyzed using SPSS software through Q factor analysis and calculation of weighted mean and standard deviation. The results showed that criteria of spatial quality for experts in order of priority are: criteria of visual proportions (4.36), the highest weighted average and the most effective one is the integrated spatial quality of the public spaces of the village in the views of the experts.


Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I., & Angel, S. (1977). A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Allen, S. (1997). From Object to field. Architectural Design. 67, 24-31.
Appleyard, D., & Jacobs, A. (1982). Toward an Urban Design. Manifesto (Working Paper No. 384).
Banerjee, T. (2001). “The Future of Public Space: Beyond Invented Streets and Reinvented Places.” Journal of the American Planning Association, 67 (1): 9–24.
Canter, D., (1977). The psychology of place. Landon: Architectural place.
Carmona, M. (2014). “The Place-Shaping Continuum: A Theory of Urban Design Process”. Journal of Urban Design, 19 (1): 2–36.
Chawla, L. (2002). Growing up in an Urbanizing World: Earthscan London
Cullen, G. (1961). Townscape. London: Architectural Press.
Daneshpayeh, N., Habib, F. (2018). The main factors affecting the formation of a sense of place in the new urban development zones (Case Study: Region No.22 & Region No.4 of Tehran Municipality). Motaleate Shahri, 7(25), 17-30.
Hosseini, B., Alal Hessabi, M., & Nasabi, F. (2012). Analyzing Urban Environment Regarding Visual Quality (Case Study: Visibility in Old Fabric of Bushehr). Hoviatshahr, 5(8), 83-91. 
Jamkasra, M. (2011). Rehabilitation of the Valuable Rural Texture. Housing and Rural Environment, 29 (132), 68-72.
Khana, A., Moulaert, F., & Schreurs, J. (2014). Integrative Spatial Quality: A Relational Epistemology of Space and Trans disciplinarily in Urban Design and Planning. Journal of Urban Design, 19(4), 393-411, DOI: 10.1080/13574809.2014.936142 To link to this article:
Kowkabi, L., Akrami, G. (2021). The Localization of Sustainable Landscape Indicators in Iranian Rural Ecosystem Based on the Mental-Evaluative Images of Stakeholders. Journal of Rural Research, 11(4), 728-745. doi: 10.22059/jrur.2020.299366.1478 
Kowkabi, L., Badri, S. (2020). Explaining Sustainable Landscape ndicators in the Rural Area of Iran Based on Experts’ and Professionals’ Assessment. Journal of Rural Research, 11(1), 50-65. doi: 10.22059/jrur.2019.277942.1342 
Lang, J. (2009). Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of the Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design. (A. Reza, Ainifar Trans.). Tehran: Tehran University Press. (Original Work published 1987). 
Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge, MA: Technology Press and Harvard University Press.
Madanipour, A. (2006). “Roles and Challenges of Urban Design.” Journal of Urban Design. 11 (2): 173–193.
Mahdi Nejad, J., Sharghi, A., & Asadpour, F. (2019). A theory of Thoughts to Explore the Concept of Visual Aesthetics Affecting the Quality of people perception of rural landscapes, 1st international and  the 5th national conference on sustainable architecture and urban. Tehran. Iran.
Mahdi Nejad, J., Sharghi, A., Asadpour, F. (2020). Investigating the Indicators and Subjective Patterns of the Majority of Experts in People's Visual Perception of the Rural Environment Appearance. Journal of Rural Research, 11(3), 422-439. doi: 10.22059/jrur.2020.297844.1464 
Mehta, V. (2014). “Evaluating Public Space.” Journal of Urban Design, 19 (1): 53–88.
Moulaert, F., Van Dyck, B., Khan, A. Z., & Schreurs, J. (2013). “Building a Meta-Framework to ‘Address’ Spatial Quality.” International Planning Studies, 18 (3–4): 389–409. 
Oswald, F., & Bacini, P. (2003). Netzstadt. Designing the urban, Basel, Boston. Berlin: Birkhäuse
Rodrigue, J.P., Comtois, C., & Slack, B. (2017). The Geography of Transport Systems. fourth Edition, London: Routledge, p. 440.
Salvati, L. Zitti, M. (2012). Monitoring Vegetation and land use quality along the rural urban gradient in a Mediterranean region, Applied Geography, 32 (20). 896-903. science/article/pii/S0143622811001718
Selman, P. (2008). What do we mean by sustainable landscape? Sustainability: science, practice and policy, 4(2). 23-28. DOI:  10.1080 /15487733.2008.11908019
Shultez, N. (2011). Splite of Place. (M. R. Shirazi, Trans.). Tehran: Rokhdadno press. (Original Work published )
Sternberg, E. (2000). “An Integrative Theory of Urban Design”. Journal of the American Planning Association, 66 (3): 265–278.
Shahabzadeh M. (2015). Using the Adolescents' Participation in the Design Process of the Built Environment, Housing & Rural Environmen. 34 (151) :19-34.URL : http :// -1-834-fa.html 
Sohrabian, G., & Habib, F. (2016). Aesthetics Component of Urban Night Scape. Urban Management, 14(41), 187-204.
Tavassoli, M. (1997). Principles and Methods of Urban Design and Residential Spaces in Iran. (Vol. 1), (4th ed.), Tehran: Urban Planning and Architecture Research Center of Iran.
Tarkashvand, A., & Majidi, S. (2014). Reconition of the Signs in Cities. Iranian Architevture And Urbanism, -(6), 5-15. https://www 
Van den Broeck, P., M. Abdelwahab, K. Miciukiewicz, & J. Hillier. (2013). “On Analysing Space from a Strategic-Relational Institutionalist Perspective: The Cultural Park for Children in Cairo.”International Planning Studies, 18 (3–4), 321–341.
Viskovicnika, N.R. (2017). "Spatial Constraints of Slovenian Farms: What Does Urbanization Have to Do with It? ". European Countryside, Sciendo, 9(2), 274-286.