Document Type : Research Project Article
PhD student of land use planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran
University of Tehran
The appearance and physical structure of Iranian villages with the influence and invasion of technology, culture and urban appearance and at the same time the decline of cultural and indigenous values among the villagers, are increasingly distorted and every day away from their original identity and appearance be. However, some of these textures have survived due to their architectural capabilities and values. The physical structure of the village reflects the beliefs, values and behaviors based on it. Therefore, identifying, reviving and preserving the valuable historical context of the village is important in order to preserve the cultural and historical heritage, and in addition to preserving its form, it will preserve a set of local beliefs and values. Accordingly, the correct knowledge and classification of different types of architecture can be useful in better understanding the space, its protection and also achieving new design methods. Seifabad Balai village (old) due to having valuable architecture and historical context and suitable location for tourism, needs identification, typology, classification and planning for documentation as well as preservation of its historical context in order to develop tourism, maintenance and transmission They are for the future.
The research method is applied research. And in terms of the method of descriptive-analytical. In order to collect the desired information, two methods of library-documentary and field methods have been used in conducting research. In the field studies section, by harvesting all the houses in the village, while carefully examining and planning each house, the required information is collected and the necessary maps are drawn by the author. Then, by analyzing and categorizing the type of plans, the typology pattern and local architectural features in the houses of the village in question have been examined. The tools used in the field method include: physical harvest form, measuring instruments, GPS device to record geographical coordinate information, and a camera.
Results and discussion
Field and archaeological studies conducted in the village of Seifabad Balai (old) and the surrounding area, traces and remains of habitation belonging to five historical periods, including: 1- The first and second millennium BC, 2- Sassanid period 3- Early Islamic period, 4- Qajar period and 5- First and second Pahlavi period have been observed and identified. Over the years, various natural and human factors have caused the erosion and destruction of buildings and the physical fabric of the village, but what has accelerated the destruction of these houses has been the human factor. The results of field studies related to the type of materials used in buildings in the village show that during the Qajar and the first Pahlavi period, houses were mostly made of brick or china with a wooden or mud roof. In the construction of village houses, arched structures have been used on the roof. In field surveys of village houses, 3 samples of different arches have been identified. The most common belongs to the arch called the truncated arch. In expert studies of village houses, the results indicate that all houses have many ledges in their three walls and only the entrance wall to the inside of the house did not have ledges. It also shows that in most village houses there is a heater and a preheater. In relation to village house plans, the results show that village house plans are generally rectangular or L-shaped. According to studies and interviews conducted with residents and elderly people of the village, the relocation of residents from the village began in 1978 and during the period of 5 years the village has become uninhabited. Residents and past residents of Seifabad Balai (old) village have stated various reasons such as lack of space, distance from the Kazerun-Baladeh-Farashband communication road and the problem of water shortage as the reason for their relocation. But the most important and main reason for moving the villagers to a new place can be pointed to the construction of the road.
The results of the research have shown that, in terms of the history of living in the village of Seifabad Balai and its surroundings, it has been divided and identified into 5 historical periods. Regarding the type of materials used in the construction of historical houses in the village, the results showed that in the Qajar and Pahlavi eras, the houses were mainly made of brick or china with a wooden or mud roof. But in the second Pahlavi era, the material of materials used to build houses has changed to imitate the city of Kazerun, and stone, plaster and cement materials have been used. Regarding the typology of the roofs of the village houses, the results show that 3 different examples of arches, including: 1- truncated arch, 2- circular dome arch and 3- chamleh arch (water reservoir) have been identified in the village. Regarding the typology of ledges in village houses, the results have shown that ledges with species including: 1- square ledges with semicircular crescent arches, 2- square ledges, 3- rectangular ledges Along with the semicircular crescent arch, 4- rectangular ledges, 5- square ledges with truncated arches and 6- rectangular ledges with a semicircular ledge at the top have been identified in the village. Regarding the typology of water basins in the village of Seifabad Balai (old), the results show that the material of this water basin is stone and cement and the location of these two water basins has been different. . In connection with the typology of village house plans, the results of technical studies of village level houses show that there are 4 different types of house plans, including: 1- L-shaped houses, 2- Rectangular houses With one section, 3- houses with a rectangular plan with two separate sections and 4- houses with a rectangular plan with three separate sections have been divided and identified.