Analysis of the livability of tourism target villages (Case study: Ardabil district)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. student, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Planning and Environmental Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Razi university


This study evaluated the livability of 11 tourist target villages in Ardabil district (Ardebil, Nemin, Sarein and Nair county) using a descriptive-analytical approach. A number of indicators and items related to livability have been determined based on the studies conducted (4 dimensions, 14 indicators, and 65 items). In the next step, the questionnaire was developed by the researcher and after confirming the validity and reliability; It was distributed according to the population of the entire region. The sample size was determined using the Cochran method (360 samples) and the number of samples for the studied villages was determined according to the population of each village. In the following, Shannon's entropy technique was used to weight the indicators, and based on Prescott Allen's point of view and using Vicor's technique, the livability status of the studied villages was examined at 5 levels (completely favorable to completely unfavorable). The results show that none of the studied villages are in a completely unfavorable state of livability, and the village of Bileh-Dargh is in first place with a score of 0.84 and is in a state of complete desirability of livability. 53.7 percent of the studied villages have a favorable livability status. With a score of 0.57, the village of Ilanjuq is ranked 8th and has an average livability status. 27.2 percent of the villages, i.e. 3 villages of Golestan, Sardabe and Korabaslu, while being in an unfavorable condition of livability, have occupied the 9th to 11th ranks.
Keyword: Livability, planning, target villages for tourism, Ardabil.

In recent decades, according to the challenges and problems in the villages, various solutions and views have been proposed; One of the most important of them is livability, which has flourished with the evolution of planning priorities and the importance of responding to the increasing needs of the rural community, which is looking for higher and higher facilities, facilities and quality of life; Therefore, the purpose of the current research is to evaluate the livability of 11 villages targeted for tourism in Ardabil district, which includes four cities: Ardabil, Nemin, Serain, and Nair.
The research method is descriptive-analytical and quantitative in nature. Two library and field methods have been used to collect data and information. The statistical population of the study includes 4278 people in 11 tourism target villages in Ardabil district. The sample size was estimated to be 366 people based on Cochran's formula. This was distributed according to the number of household heads in each village using the quota sampling method. The data collection tool in the survey method was a questionnaire. The indicators needed to measure viability were extracted from the study of other researchers, which include 4 dimensions, 14 indicators and 65 items. The design of the questionnaire was basically done with closed questions in the form of a five-point Likert scale (completely favorable, favorable, average, unfavorable, completely unfavorable). It should be noted that the validity of the researcher-made questionnaire was evaluated using the expert opinions of university professors, and Cronbach's alpha test was used to evaluate the reliability of the data. After standardizing the collected data related to the indicators, their weighting is done. In this research, the Shannon entropy weighting method was used. Finally, to determine the livability status of the studied villages, the multi-indicator decision-making technique of VIKOR is employed. Also, GIS software is used to draw maps for better spatial analysis and understanding of the livability of villages.
According to Shannon's entropy findings, indicators of job opportunity, vulnerability and material well-being with weights of 0.128, 0.104 and 0.094 have the highest weight among livability indicators, and the lowest weight is 0.036 to institutional-political indicators. The results related to livability in the social dimension based on the Vicor technique in the form of 7 indicators: health and treatment, education, recreation and leisure, participation and solidarity, personal and social security, institutional-political, cultural index showed that 36.36 percent of villages (Ilanjuq, Qara Shiran, Alvares and Golestan) are in medium livability condition and 27.27% of these villages (Bile Dargh, Ateshgah and Kalkhoran Wind) are in favorable livability condition. The findings related to viability in the economic dimension, based on 2 indicators of job opportunities and material well-being, indicate that 36.36% equivalent to 4 villages (Ateshgah, Beile Dargh, Aladizgeh and Qara Shirin) are in a completely favorable situation. Favorable, medium and unfavorable areas each cover 18.8% of villages. Examining the livability situation in the environmental aspect of the studied villages in the form of 3 indicators: environmental quality, landscape and vulnerability showed that 45.45 percent of the villages, equivalent to 5 villages, are in a favorable livability condition and 27.27 percent, equivalent to three villages, are in a state of complete favorability. The findings in the physical dimension, which includes 2 residential and infrastructural indicators, show that 72.72% of the villages are in favorable and average condition in terms of livability.
In this research, the livability of tourism target villages in Ardabil district has been investigated in social, economic, environmental and physical dimensions. The results of the combination of these dimensions showed that 53.7% of the studied villages are in a favorable livability state and 27.2% of the villages are in an unfavorable livability state. None of the studied villages are in a completely unfavorable livability state. Therefore, it can be said that more than half of the studied villages are in a suitable livable state.
Based on the study, it was found that the indicators of welfare, job opportunity and vulnerability had the greatest impact on the viability of the studied villages. The livability status of the villages varied on different dimensions, but overall most regions had acceptable livability. Therefore, according to the conditions of the villages and their weak points in the field of livability, we can offer proposals such as payment of credits and facilities for retrofitting in the villages of Sardabeh, Konraq, and Korabaslu, development of recreational and service facilities in the villages of Alvares, Kor, and Sardabeh.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 16 September 2023
  • Receive Date: 27 February 2023
  • Revise Date: 04 September 2023
  • Accept Date: 07 September 2023