Document Type : Research Paper
PhD Student of Geography and Rural Planning, Human Geography Group, Faculty of Geography, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
One of the main issues of the nomads today is the issue of nomadic resettlement in the County of Mallard, and the tribal settlement plan has been forced since Reza Shah's time, and so far, the nomadic accommodation is currently with the tribal consent. With the nomadic settlement of the livelihood of the small community, this transformation, though apparently known by leaving the small and unity in the constant housing, is under its heartfelt changes to the fundamental changes in the culture, social, economic and biological foundations of the nomadic life. The purpose of this article is to compare the social and economic indicators of the tribes before and after the accommodation in the County of Mallard, and the following questions are raised:
1) What social differences have happened before and after resettlement in the life of nomadic households?
2) What economic differences before and after resettlement in the lives of nomadic households?
3) What is the satisfaction of the nomadic settlement community before and after resettlement in different components?
The current research is descriptive-analytical in terms of its practical purpose and method. In order to advance this research, documentary and field methods have been used. In the documentary method, books, magazines, information archives of organizations, including provincial nomadic affairs and other documents related to the subject of the research, have been studied. In the field method, a special questionnaire was used to compare two time periods before and after settlement. According to the statistics of Mallard health and treatment network in 2023, the studied area includes 21 supportive housing centers with 520 households. Based on the modified formula of Cochran, 126 households were determined as the sample size and among the centers above 30 households with the number of 7 centers were selected for this purpose. In order to analyze the data, the t-test of two independent groups was used in the Spss23 statistical software environment.
3. Results and Discussion
- Socio-cultural index: according to the comparison of the average data obtained from 2.75 before the settlement to 3.55 after the settlement with the help of t-test at the significance level of Sig=0.05 and the value of t statistic which is equal to 2.06, it is possible to confirm the validity of the descriptive findings of the research that the spontaneous settlement of the Mallard nomads has caused positive changes in their socio-cultural conditions and status.
-Economic index: according to the comparison of the average data obtained from 2.82 before the settlement to 3.08 after the settlement with the help of the t test at the significance level of Sig=0.05 and the value of the t statistic which is equal to 2.15. It is possible to confirm the accuracy of the descriptive findings of the research that the settlement has caused positive changes in the economic status of the nomads.
- Nomadic satisfaction index: comparing the average data obtained from 2.08 before the settlement to 3.12 after the settlement at a significance level of Sig=0.05 with the value of the t test statistic equal to 1.97, shows that after the settlement, The impact of the satisfaction index among settled nomadic households has been positive.
- Socio-cultural index: If in the past, the nomads were deprived of most of the facilities and services of healthcare, welfare, the possibility of education for girls, etc., but with the settlement, their accessibility has provided more favorable conditions. The level of skill and mastery in livestock-agricultural and horticultural affairs, the opportunity to participate and use educational facilities in agricultural and animal husbandry courses, cooperation with people from other clans of the center, has improved compared to before the settlement and the situation has improved. But in addition to such strengths, the role of white-haired elders and local trustees among the clan members should be reduced, the workload of women in matters related to livestock (milking, preparation of dairy products such as cheese, butter, animal yellow oil, kashk, etc.) should be reduced. , pointed out the decrease in craft production skills after settlement.
-Economic indicator: after the settlement of nomads, the amount of livestock losses has decreased, the access to the market for selling livestock and agricultural products, the amount of irrigated agricultural land and the amount of production of these lands has increased. However, the number of nomadic livestock (light livestock and heavy livestock) is decreasing.
- Satisfaction index: satisfaction with the settlement of nomads, satisfaction with livestock and agriculture income, satisfaction with the amount of savings, satisfaction with the facilities provided (flour quota, petroleum products, etc.), satisfaction with agricultural products insurance and livestock insurance, satisfaction with the effect of training classes It has increased in relation to agricultural and livestock matters.