Analysis of Land Use Changes in Rural Settlements of Tehran Metropolis (Case Study: Shahriar County)

Document Type : Thesis Article

Authors

1 PhD Student of Geography and Rural Planning, Human Geography Group, Faculty of Geography, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Human Geography Group, Faculty of Geography, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Human Geography Group, Faculty of Geography, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

1. Introduction
one of the most active phenomena on earth is land use change. In the last few decades, the city of Tehran and its gradual importance has given a different appearance to the surrounding rural centers and has become the basis for their change. The rural settlements of Shahryar County are not exempted from this rule and it is one of the manifestations that due to the proximity and physical-spatial dependence with the metropolis of Tehran, the significant increase in the share of the population of the rural areas of the city due to its immigrating properties, numerous industrial units and huge floods were built. Sazah has undergone many changes in land use, especially agricultural land. Based on the importance of this issue, the following article tries to investigate and understand the change of land use in rural settlements of Shahriar district during a period of 10 years (2011-2021) and also to know the internal and external factors affecting such a change. In line with the aforementioned goals, the current research tries to answer the following key questions:
1) During the last decade, what changes have been made in the land use of rural settlements in Shahryar district?
2) What are the most important internal and external factors affecting land use change in Shahryar County?
2. Methodology
The present study is in the category of applied research in terms of its purpose and in terms of pragmatism approach. In this study, a set of library and documentation methods and field studies based on collaborative methods have been used. The research methodology is of a mixed type in order to achieve the goals and answer its questions. According to the type of combined methodology, the research strategy is sequential and solves problems with an explanatory-exploratory research plan. Maps and satellite images in different time frames are important tools in order to answer the first question of the research, i.e. "knowing the change of land use in the villages of Shahryar County in the spatio-temporal process". Remote sensing techniques and satellite images using ENVI and Arc GIS software have been used to investigate land use change in the villages of the study area during a 10-year period (2011-2021). In line with the second question of the research, "Determining the internal and external factors affecting land use change in the villages of Shahryar" to collect data, semi-structured interview technique was used in the form of snowball sampling and the interview was conducted among experts. After conducting 25 in-depth interviews, theoretical saturation was achieved, but for more certainty, the interviews continued up to 30 people.
3. Results and Discussion
Quantitative section
According to the obtained results, residential lands have experienced an upward trend during the studied period (2011-2021). The trend of garden land use is increasing with an average rate of 14%, 16% and 17% in the years 2011, 2016 and 2021, respectively. The area of agricultural land has decreased from 13% in 2011 to 10% in 2016. Of course, this downward trend continues until the year 2021, so that in this period of time, agricultural land has reached 10%. In fact, agricultural use has decreased over a decade. In addition to all these, the most significant land use is related to other land use, which has been decreasing. In general, the results of land area changes in the studied area indicate the intensification of land use changes, including the expansion of man-made lands, the reduction and loss of barren and untouched lands (other uses). The highest amount of land use changes during the last decade is related to the northern and central parts of Shahriar County, and the lowest is related to the southwestern parts.
Qualitative section
Based on the results of interviews and field visits, the following results were obtained:
A) Internal factors: weak organizational interactions, spatial proximity to the metropolis, crisis in water resources management, growth of land speculation, low productivity of the agricultural sector.
B) External factors: development of multi-center spatial management, power rent in the policy and planning system, oil-based economy, development of industrial economy, metropolitan creep, demographic backwardness of Tehran metropolis, low institutional capacity.
4. Conclusion
With an integrated look at the internal factors, we can see that there is a significant relationship between these factors; In other words, the internal factors provide an image of the village with influence and effectiveness, which indicates the change in land use. Among the weak factors of organizational interaction is a factor that by influencing other factors has provided a platform for land use change in the villages of Shahriar County. The discovery of the mechanism of the influence of factors on each other shows that among the external factors, low institutional capacity is the basis for the development of multi-center spatial management, power rent in the policy and planning system, the boom in the oil economy, the development of the industrial economy, and the unbridled influx of the population of Tehran metropolis. In the meantime, the desire to invest in the industrial sector and the development of the industrial economy has led to high immigration in the region. Finally, the interaction of these factors has led to the change of land use in the villages of Shahriar County. Institutions and organizations alone cannot slow down the process of land use changes, therefore, it is suggested that the government prevent the consequences of land use change by clarifying and involving local residents in the decision-making process. Also, the support of the government and banks to the farmers of the region can at least provide the basis for slowing down the process of excessive changes in land use.

Keywords



Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 12 April 2024
  • Receive Date: 30 November 2023
  • Revise Date: 19 March 2024
  • Accept Date: 03 April 2024