Feasibility of Adapting Cultural Globalization Theories in Villages, According to Lifestyle Indices Case Study: South Braan Rural District in Isfahan Central Zone



There is no need that globalism and localism be mutually exclusive; and at the same time, global and local extensions are important for understanding, when the topic of globalization is the case (Roberts, 2008). Globalization has indubitably caused local, national, and international sections to meet and intertwine in ways that have historically been unimaginable. The discourse of globalization has become widespread around the world with ongoing discussions surrounding its economic, cultural, technological, and political aspects and implications (Marginson, 1999; Singh, 2004). As such, it has been viewed through the assortment lenses of finance and trade; communications and information technologies (it); international movements; formation of global societies; linguistic, cultural, and ideological convergence; and world systems of signs and images (Monkman and Baird, 2002; Marginson, 1999). Globalization is defined here as widening, deepening and speeding up of interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary social life all over the world (Held and McGrew, 1999, 2). In 1980s, globalization has been recognized as a complex of changes with more intensity and depth and considered from several points of view. Some theoreticians believe that these changes will propel world to the Americanization or equalization (Ritzer, 1993). On the other hand the others believe that it rather entails localization (Watson, 1997), while yet others speak of globalization (Robertson 1995). One of the main issues that have risen in globalization discourses during decades is the variety of cultural globalization effects on the social groups with different encounters, because each group may have a different exposure of globalization and be affected in a different. Furthermore, it should be understood that if there is any difference in rural and urban areas, in this removal. These questions in cultural globalization discourses lead to the main question of this research: According to cultural globalization theories, which effects has occurred on local lifestyles, and which of the theories explain the region of study.

Data analysis in qualitative research methods is an ambiguous process and needs too much time. In this paper, according to indices and responders, the following steps have been used for analyzing:
1- Arranging data: in this step data are noted continuously, and events and quotations are surveyed to find a way for summarizing and compacting data.
2- Classifying the data according to main subjects: based on the answers, the data have been to the classify data to main subjects in a way that data with similar same meanings are in the same group. The group is can sister the responders’ view point, but urban and rural communities will are categorized in separated groups. The answers and the groups demonstrate their lifestyles.
3- Examining hypothesizes: in this step, the patterns and their relation are examined and hypothesis are confirmed or rejected.
4- Looking for data justification: after defining the relations between data, they will be connected with main theory that gets from theoretical framework. In this step, justification of the data and compatibility with the theories is considered.
5- Writing the report: writing data is a part of analyzing process. In this process raw data are analyzed until they have clarity and meaning in main subject. In this part the main points of the thesis are considered for justifying and explaining them.

Students in rural areas spend their leisure and free time in the city with their friends and go to coffee- shops or other entertainment places. Just a small number of them stay at home and spend the time with the family. Some of them also go to the new established clubs like billiard and bowling for spending their leisure in similar with globalized way. They also mostly prefer to go to the fast food restaurants more than other groups, these activities are mentioned above as kind of global leisure which also related to the concept of leisure in globalized world and relates to the new consumption of media. Finally it is needed to stress on one point, as the effects of globalization is more visible in some specific groups like students and single interviewees, doing the activities in leisure also is more globalized among them; for example going to coffee shops or new sport places like billiard and bowling is more common in students rather than others. These results could be link to the media part that shows students are using more global media broadcastings; therefore, they are more familiar with global activities and try to spend it in a globalized way. More precisely they do their activities via the media broadcasting that they have grasped from satellite and try to be more close to global activities, but as I mentioned it just happen among the groups who are affected by globalization and specifically culture industry theory. This means using media help them to be familiar with these new concepts and try to act in these global manners.

The results show the fact that the link between cultural globalization and local lifestyle cannot only be explained by globalization and hybridization theories but also we need to add other theories to explain the exact facts in the case study; these theories could be culture industry and media globalization. This means, for instance, in the one hand the diversity of national or regional lifestyle and tradition in the region of study has still strong power, and on the other hand the power of globalization and media diversity is affecting people’s lifestyle; the front line of this process are young people and specially students in rural areas.