Document Type : Research Paper
Social trust is an important issue in development matter. It is a new mater and concept in development in general and rural development in particular. Dimensions of social trust are the most important purpose for bi-lateral and multi-lateral behaviors. People trust to each other to make relation and through this way they learnt that without participation and cooperation they cannot do their affairs. Absence of trust and participation in modern life can be resulted in decrees of political participation and low trust to take part in political institution, rise of alienation, and prefer private goods to common goods and dissatisfaction of common life. Social trust is an important part of social capital. By social capital, social trust, participation, social ties and etc. are constructed. Development is a process which needs participation, social trust and social capital. We can reach and get development by this factor. We can reach and get development by this factor in rural areas. If rural areas are developed then we can expect urban area to be developed. But if rural area doesn't have good development process we shouldn’t expect have a good urban development. Today rural development has an important effect on national development. If in a certain country rural areas are developed, so we can say this country is developed but if the areas are not developed we can conclude this country is undeveloped. For rural development so much program were performed but much of them were not successful. Because they depend on money and this was the only effective variable. If rural development programs depend only on money, absolutely they are not successful. So we should search substitution alternatives. One of useful option is social trust. By social trust we can participate in rural program and participate in planning and decision making. If people participate in a program, they have a responsibility for that. Social trust is the main core of participation.
This paper is a survey – documental study.Dimensions of social trust are determined in the following categories: bonding (interpersonal), bridging (generalized), and structural trust. We hypothesize that influential factors on social trust are social participation, social exclusion, individual factors, SES, and felling of social security. For data gathering, researcher-make questionnaire have been used. Validity and reliability have beenconfirmed by university professors and Cronbach alpha. Analysis unit was individual and level of analysis was micro. Population includes all people, above 15 years old, who lived in Hejandasht area. About 313 people have been chosen by Cochran sampling method. Analyses have been performed by SPSS statistics software and spearman Chi- square and regression correlation coefficient.
Results show that there are significant positive relation between education, participation, SES and significant negative relation between age and social exclusion with social trust. There were no significant relation between sex and felling of social security with social trust. For analysis of relative importance of independent variable in diagnostic of dependent variable, beta should be examined. According to results social participation variable have more importance. (beta:/290. Variable such: social exclusion, age, education and SES are in next grades.
This result can be analysized in Ragers sub culture theory. According to this theory, because of dominant traditional culture in rural society, residents of these societies have not enough trust to outsiders and other groups and have less of participation, innovation and trust. Thisshows that those who participate in development programs have high trust. Participation can be included participation in decision making, planning and take of benefits. This indicates that if rural residents feel there is discrimination and they cannot take their rights, they show low ratio of participation. Those who belong to high economic and social classes show high ratio of participation. This can be suggested that for increase in social trust in rural areas, call all and don’t allow participation restricted to stake holders, and those who excluded from participation (for example, women, children and poor) should take enough enjoy. By holding of educational and research institutions, it is possible to enforce level of education in rural areas. Holding long and short term classes can be useful. This methodology should be added, one of the problems in doing study in rural areas is that rural residents recognize researcher as government agent. This should also be said that researchers should study the culture of rural areas where they want to study. Their unfamiliarity with cultural and social norms may have effects on the results of the study.