ارزیابی توسعه پایدار گردشگری در مناطق روستایی حاشیه کلان‌شهر تهران (مورد مطالعه: روستای آهار)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد تمام، گروه جغرافیای انسانی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه جغرافیای انسانی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

4 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه جغرافیا و برنام هریزی روستایی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

5 دانشیار، گروه مدیریت بحران، دانشکده مطالعات مدیریتی، دانشگاه یورک، تورنتو، کانادا.

چکیده

امروزه موضوع پایداری سرلوحه تمامی فعالیت‌ها و برنامه‌های توسعه ازجمله گردشگری روستایی است. ازاین‌رو اندیشمندان بارها بر ارزش‌ها و اهداف سه‌گانه توسعه پایدار تأکید کرده‌اند که دربرگیرنده ابعاد زیست‌محیطی و اقتصادی و اجتماعی‌فرهنگی است. آنان به‌صراحت بیان داشته‌اند که دستیابی به توسعه پایدار بدون هم‌گرایی در ابعاد مذکور و تلفیق آن‌ها با یکدیگر، امری محال خواهد بود. بنابراین در این مقاله سعی شد از طریق مصاحبه با گروه‌هایی که نقش حیاتی در فرایند توسعه گردشگری روستای آهار دارند، ابعاد گردشگری پایدار و هم‌گرایی یا کارکردهای مشترک بین آن‌ها واکاوی شود. روش پژوهش حاضر کیفی و هدف آن کاربردی بود. اطلاعات این تحقیق از طریق مصاحبه‌های نیمه‌ساختاریافته و عمیق از چهار گروه ذی‌نفع کلیدی گردشگری، یعنی مدیران محلی، گردشگران، مهاجران و ساکنان بومی به‌دست آمد که از طریق ماتریس قدرت‌علاقه انتخاب شده بودند. روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند این مطالعه از نوع گلوله‌برفی بود. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد گردشگری در روستای آهار در هر سه بُعد اقتصادی و اجتماعی‌فرهنگی و زیست‌محیطی پایداری لازم را نداشت؛ به‌طوری‌که ارتباط و تعادلی بین ابعاد سه‌گانه توسعه پایدار گردشگری در روستای بررسی‌شده یافت نشد. به‌نظر می‌رسد ناپایداری فعالیت‌های گردشگری در روستای مطالعه‌شده به این علل باشد: ضعف ساختاری، نبود درک صحیح ذی‌نفعان از توسعه پایدار، فقدان آموزش‌های لازم، موانع قانونی بسیار و برقرارنکردن تعادل بهینه بین منافع ذی‌نفعان.

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