بومی‌سازی شاخص‌های سرمایه اجتماعی در مناطق روستایی ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

2 استاد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه جامعه‌شناسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

با توجه به نقش بالقوه سرمایه اجتماعی در کاهش فقر و تقویت توسعه پایدار، تلاش‌های زیادی برای طراحی ابزارهای سنجش سرمایه اجتماعی صورت گرفته است. سرمایه اجتماعی به عنوان مفهومی پیچیده را نمی‌توان با سنجه منفرد یا عدد سنجید. برای این کار باید از مجموعه‌ای از شاخص‌ها استفاده کرد تا بتوان ابعاد گوناگون آن را مقایسه کرد. در این چهارچوب این پرسش مطرح شد که فرایند بومی‌سازی شاخص‌های سرمایه اجتماعی در مناطق روستایی ایران چگونه است. برای پاسخ علمی به پرسش و ایجاد مجموعه‌ای مناسب از شاخص‌ها برای اندازه‌گیری سرمایه اجتماعی در مناطق روستایی ایران، مقاله حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی‌تحلیلی و پیمایشی و نظرخواهی از خبرگان و اساتید و متخصصان امر، به شیوه دلفی شاخص‌ها و معیارهای مناسب و بومی‌شده را ارائه کرده است. بر اساس یافته‌های تحقیق، در مجموع 9 مؤلفه و 18 شاخص و 53 نماگر انتخاب شد که با مناطق روستایی ایران سازگار هستند. افزون بر این، با بومی‌سازی شاخص‌های سرمایه اجتماعی در توسعه پایدار روستایی، این امکان فراهم می‌شود تا علاوه‌ بر انتخاب شاخص‌های سازگار و منطبق با شرایط روستاهای ایران، به جنبه عملیاتی‌بودن و قابل اجرا بودن این مؤلفه‌ها و شاخص‌ها و نماگرها در برنامه‌های توسعه پایدار روستایی نیز توجه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abrahamson, K. V. (1997). Paradigms of sustainability. Uppsalla: Uuppsalla University.
Adibi Sede, M., Yazdkhasti, B., Khorasegani, A. & Lotfalizade, A. (2009). [Evaluating the social assets among groups (Persian)]. Quarterly of Social Welfare, 10(38), 193-220.
Firouzjaie, A. A., Sadighi, H., & Mohammadi, M. A. (2007). The influence of social capital on adoption of rural development programs by farmers in the Caspian Sea Region of Iran. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 2(1), 15–22. doi: 10.3844/ajabssp.2007.15.22
Alavizade, A. M. (2004). [Patterns of economical–social development with the focus on rural sustainable development (Persian)]. Political & Economic Ettela'at, (245-246), 190-201.
Amdam, J. & Amdam, R. (2000). Kommunikativ planlegging, Samlaget, Oslo: Samlaget.
Aspen Institute. (1996). Measuring community capacity building: A workbook-in-progress for rural communities. Washington, D.C.: Aspen Institute.
Avijit, G. (1998). Ecology and development in third world. (2nd Ed.). London: Routledge.
Axinn, G. H., & Axinn, N. W. (1997). Collaboration in International rural development: A practitioner hand book. London: Sage Publications.
Azarbad, N., Salmani, M., Motiee Langroudi, H. & Eftekhari, A. (2010). [An analysis on a settlement’s network with an emphasis on population flows in Firuzkooh Township (Persian)]. Human Geography Researches, (74), 75-89.
Azkia, M., & Imani, A. (2008). [Rural sustainable development (Persian)]. Tehran: Etelaate Publication.
Baland, J. M., & Platteau, J. P. (1996). Halting degradation of natural resources. Is there a role for rural communities?. New York: United Nations.
Bjørnskov, C. (2003). Corruption and social capital [Internet]. Retrieved from pure.au.dk/portal/files/32303928/0003139.pdf
Bjornskov, C., & Svendsen, G. T. (2003). Measuring social capital- Is there a single underlying explanation? [Internet]. Retrieved from www.hha.dk/nat/wper/03-5_gts.pdf
Brown, T. F. (1998). Theoretical perspectives on social capital [Internet]. Retrieved from: Http:jhunix.edu/-tombrown/Econsoc/soccap.html.
Chambers, R. & Conway, G. R. (1991). Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st century. Brighton, East Sussex: Institute of development studies.
Cheers, B., Cock, G., Keele, L. H., Kruger, M., & Trigg, H. (2005). Measuring community capacity: An electronic audit tool. Paper presented at The 2nd National Conference on the Future of Australia’s Country Towns, 11–13 July 2005, Bendigo, Australia
Choi, H. C., & Sirakaya, E. (2006). Sustainability indicators for managing community tourism. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1274–1289. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2005.05.018
DFID. (1999). Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets. London: Department for International Development.
Dobie, P. (2004). Models for national strategies: Building capacity for sustainable development, Development Policy Journal, 1.
Eftekhari, A. & Badri, A. (2012). [The theoretical basis of rural developmental patterns, governorship of Gilan (Persian)]. Gilan: Gilan Governorate Publication.
Eftekhari, A., Azimi Amoli, J., Pourtaheri, M., & Ahmadipour, Z. (2011). [Determining the relationship between good governorship and sustainable development in rural areas of Mazandaran (Persian)]. Rural Researches, 2(4), 1-34.
Eftekhari, A., Mahdavi, D., & Pourtaheri, M. (2010). [The process of Localization of indexes of tourism sustainable development of rural areas in Iran (Persian)]. Rural Researches, 1(4), 1-41.
Cox, D. (1996). Showing the way: Methodologies for successful rural poverty alleviation projects. New York: United Nations.
Falk, I., & Kilpatrick, S. (2000). What is social capital? A study of interaction in a rural community. Sociologia Ruralis, 40(1), 87–110. doi: 10.1111/1467-9523.00133
Farahani, H., Abdi, S. & Cheraghi, M. (2012). [Evaluation of social asset’s influence in development of rural areas with the focus of life quality (Case study: Mashhad District, Mighan, Arak county)(Persian)]. Regional Planning, 2(8), 67-78.
Fathi, S. (2012). [An analysis of the role of social assets of rural developments (Persian)]. Regional Planning, 2(2), 195-214.
Fine, B. & Green, F. (2000). Economics, social capital, and the colonization of the social sciences. In S. Baron, J. Field, T. Schuller (Ed.), Social Capital, Critical Perspectives (pp. 78-93). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Flora, C., Kinsley, M., Luther, V., Wall, M., Odell, S., Ratner, S. et al. (1999). Measuring community success and sustainability: An interactive workbook. Iowa: Iowa State University Press.
Fokoyama, F. (1995). Social Capital at World Bank, Strategic and operational implications of the concept. New York: Colombia University Press.
Grootaert, C., & Bastelaer, T. (2002). The role of social capital in development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Healey, P. (1997). Collaborative planning. shaping places in fragmented societies. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
Healey, P., Madanapour, A. & Magalhaes, C. (1999). Institutional capasity-building, urban planning and urban regeneration projects. In M. Sotarauta (Ed.), Urban Futures: A Loss of Shadows in the Flowing Spaces? (pp. 117-137). Austin: Futura Publishing LLC.
Healy, T. (2002). The measurement of social capital at international level [Internet]. Retrieved from www.oecd.org/innovation/research/2380281.pdf
Hjollund, L., & Svendsen, G. T. (2000). Social capital: A standard method of measurement [Internet]. Retrieved from www.hha.dk/nat/wper/00-9_gts.pdf
Homans, G. (1961). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.
Jacobs, J. (1961). The life and death of great American cities. New York: Penguin Random House.
Khani, F., Ghadiri Maasoum, M. & Molkan, A. (2013). The influence of social assets on improvement of rural development (Case study: Godin District, Kangavar County), (Persian)]. Journal of the National Geographic Society Iranian, 11(38), 133-152.
Knack, S. (2002). Social capital and the quality of government: Evidence from the States. American Journal of Political Science, 46(4), 772. doi: 10.2307/3088433
Krishna, A. (2004). Understanding, measuring and utilizing social capital: Clarifying concepts and presenting a field application from India. Agricultural Systems, 82(3), 291–305. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2004.07.003
Krishna, A. & Shrader, E. (1999). Social capital assessment tool. Paper presented at The Conference on Social Capital and Poverty Reduction, 22-24 June 1999, Washington, USA.
Krishna, A. & Uphoff, N. (1999). Mapping and measuring social capital: A conceptual and empirical study of collective action for conserving and developing watersheds in Rajasthan, India. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
La Porta, R., Lopez‐de‐Silanes, F., Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. W. (1998). Law and finance. Journal of Political Economy, 106(6), 1113–1155. doi: 10.1086/250042.
Lehtonen, M. (2004). The environmental–social interface of sustainable development: Capabilities, social capital, institutions. Ecological Economics, 49(2), 199–214. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.03.019
Magnani, N., & Struffi, L. (2009). Translation sociology and social capital in rural development initiatives. A case study from the Italian Alps. Journal of Rural Studies, 25(2), 231–238. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2008.10.004
Merino, S. S., & Carmenado, I., & de Los R. (2012). Capacity building in development projects. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 960–967. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.231
Schoeffel, P., Overton, J., & Scheyvans, R. (2000). Strategies for sustainable development: Experiences from the pacific. Pacific Affairs, 73(3), 475. doi: 10.2307/2672065
Putnam, R. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Putnam, R. D. (1995). Tuning in, tuning out: the strange disappearance of social capital in America. Political Science & Politics, 28(4), 664–683. doi: 10.1017/s1049096500058856
Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Rezvani, M. (2002). [Schedule of rural development (the concepts, guidelines and processes) (Persian)]. Journal of Tehran University Faculty of Literature and Humanities, 52(164), 221-240.
Sabatini, F. (2005). Resources for the study of social capital. The Journal of Economic Education, 36(2), 198–198. doi: 10.3200/jece.36.2.198-198.
Sakata, S. (2002). [What is social capital? (Japanese)]. Tokyo: Japan International Cooperation Agency.
Sarafi, M. (1996). [The basis of regional planning (Persian)]. Tehran: Organization of Planning and Budget Publication.
Schwarz, A. M., Béné, C., Bennett, G., Boso, D., Hilly, Z., Paul, C., et al. (2011). Vulnerability and resilience of remote rural communities to shocks and global changes: Empirical analysis from Solomon Islands. Global Environmental Change, 21(3), 1128–1140. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.04.011.
Seeley, J. R., Alexander Sim, R., Loosley, E. W. & Riesman, D. (1956). Crestwood heights: A study of the culture of suburban life. New York: Basic Books.
Serageldin, I. & Grootaert, C. (2000). Defining social capital: An integrating view. Washington: World Bank.
Small, M. L. (2002). Culture, cohorts, and social organization theory: understanding local participation in a Latino housing project. American Journal of Sociology, 108(1), 1–54. doi: 10.1086/345649.
Svendsen, G. L. H., & Svendsen, G. T. (2000). Measuring Social Capital: The Danish Co-operative Dairy Movement. Sociologia Ruralis, 40(1), 72–86. doi: 10.1111/1467-9523.00132
Szajnowska-Wysocka, A. (2009). Theories of regional and local development - abridged review. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-Economic Series, 12(12). doi: 10.2478/v10089-009-0005-2
Tajbakhsh, K. (2005). [Social asset: confidence, democracy and development (Persian)]. Shiraze: Shiraze Publication.
Uslaner, E. M. (2001). Trust and corruption. Paper presented at the Conference on Political Scandals, Past and Present at the University of Salford.
World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). (1987). From one earth to one world: An overview. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Whiteley, P. F. (2000). Economic growth and social capital, Political Studies, 8, 443-466. doi: 10.1111/1467-9248.00269
Woolcock, M. (2001). The place of social capital in understanding social and economic outcomes, The contribution of Human and social capital to sustained economic growth and well-being. International Symposium
Yokoyama, S. & Ishida, A. (2006). Social capital and community development: a review. Japan: Asian Productivity Organization.
Zahedi Mazandarani, M. J. (2005). [The saving power of rural families and its effects on rural cooperation on development process (Persian)], Agricultural Economics and Development, 13(49).
Zak, P. J., & Knack, S. (2001). Trust and growth. The Economic Journal, 111, 295–321. doi: 10.1111/1468-0297.00609