اصل چهار و تغییر اجتماعی در ایران (معرفی و نقد کتاب «بررسی اهداف و عملکرد اصل چهار ترومن»)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشه اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تغییرات اجتماعی برون‌زا و نوین در ایران علیرغم سابقه طولانی مورد توجه جدی قرار نگرفته‌اند. از مهم‌ترین عوامل مؤثر در تغییرات اجتماعی برون‌زا پیش از انقلاب اسلامی، نوع ارتباطات خارجی خصوصاً با ایالات‌متحده آمریکا بوده است. تأثیر این رابطه عمدتاً در حوزه‌های سیاسی و نظامی مدنظر قرار گرفته و از سایر حوزه‌های مهم و اساسی نظیر اقتصاد و فرهنگ غفلت شده است. هدف این مقاله بازخوانی انتقادی اهداف و عملکرد اصل چهار ترومن در ایران می‌باشد که در کتابی با همین نام انتشار یافته است. هدف‌گیری اساسی اصل چهار بر روستاها به عنوان کانون‌های «کار و تولید» و «همکاری» بود و توسعه را در چارچوب «مصرف» به عنوان هنجار اجتماعی و «رفاه» به مثابه ایدئولوژی سیاسی تعریف می‌کرد. در این مدلِ توسعه می‌بایستی کانون‌های مولد به کانون‌های مصرف تبدیل شوند و شهرهای مصرفی نماد توسعه‌یافتگی محسوب می‌گردند. کتاب «بررسی اهداف و عملکرد اصل چهار ترومن» تنها اثر انتشار یافته در این زمینه است که کالبدشکافی مناسبی از ماهیت و فرایند اصل چهار در ایران ارائه داده امّا به نتایج و تأثیرات پایدار این طراحیِ تغییر اجتماعی در ایران کمتر توجه داشته است. با این وجود می‌تواند در طراحی الگوی تغییرات اجتماعی در ایران به کار آید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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