تحلیل مقایسه‌ای ادراکات ساکنان محلی به اثرات گردشگری در نواحی روستایی (مورد مطالعه: روستاهای حوضه آبریز رودخانه کُلان شهرستان ملایر)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیای انسانی، گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده فرماندهی و ستاد، دانشگاه علوم انتظامی امین، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار جغرافیای انسانی، گروه جغرافیای انسانی و عضو قطب برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران.

3 استاد جغرافیای انسانی، گروه جغرافیای انسانی و عضو قطب برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران.

چکیده

تاکنون بخش وسیعی از مطالعات گردشگری در نواحی روستایی بر شناخت اثرات مثبت و منفی آن در ابعاد اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی، و محیط‌زیستی متمرکز شده است. اما با در نظر گرفتن ناهمسانی دیدگاه‌های مردم محلی از اثرات یاد شده، پژوهش‌های اندکی در زمینه مقایسه ادراکات ذینفعان، به‌ویژه ساکنان روستایی انجام شده است. این پژوهش به تحلیل مقایسه‌ای ادراکات ساکنان محلی از اثرات گردشگری در منطقه حوضه آبریز رودخانه کُلان شهرستان ملایر می‌پردازد. روش پژوهش ترکیبی است. در مرحله کیفی طی6 نشست بارش افکار گروهی، با مشارکت 60 نفر از داوطلبان محلی اثرات مثبت و منفی گردشگری شناسایی و مبنای طراحی پرسشنامه به عنوان ابزار سنجش در مرحله کمّی قرار گرفت. سرانجام 350 پرسشنامه از 10 درصد جمعیت بالای 15 سال گردآوری شد. داده‌ها با استفاده از آمارهای توصیفی، تحلیل‌عاملی اکتشافی، تحلیل‌خوشه‌ای، تحلیل‌تشخیص، خی-دو، و تحلیل واریانس یک‌طرفه تجزیه‌وتحلیل شد. بر اساس تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی اثرات مثبت به سه دسته در ابعاد اقتصادی، محیطی، و اجتماعی، و اثرات منفی نیز به سه دسته در ابعاد محیط‌زیستی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی تقسیم شد. نتایج تحلیل خوشه‌ای ادراکات مردم محلی از اثرات مثبت و منفی گردشگری بیانگر سه دیدگاه متفاوت است. در اغلب موارد تفاوت معناداری میان ادراکات ساکنان محلی از اثرات مثبت و منفی گردشگری مشاهده شد. نتایج پژوهش منطبق بر اصول نظریه تبادل اجتماعی است، به طوری که ادراکات ساکنان محلی تابع میزان اثرپذیری آن‌ها از ابعاد مختلف اثرات مثبت و منفی گردشگری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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