نقد و بررسی پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی (با تأکید بر پژوهش‌های جغرافیای روستایی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

تقلیل فضا به عینیت صرف و اکتفا کردن به روش‌های صرفاً کمی در ارتباط با شناخت فضای جغرافیایی مسائلی را برای علم جغرافیا به‌خصوص در چند دهه اخیر مطرح ساخته است یکی از این مسائل را می‌توان عدم فهم جهان، فضا و تجربه زیسته کنشگران محلی دانست. در این مقاله سعی شده است تا با شناخت ویژگی‌های هستی شناسانه، معرفت شناسانه و روش شناسانه پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی (با تأکید بر پژوهش‌های جغرافیای روستایی) نشان داده شود که این پژوهش‌ها از منظر پارادایم شناسی در کدام دسته از پارادایم‌های اثبات‌گرایی، تفسیری و انتقادی قرار می‌گیرند و در نهایت به نقد و بررسی پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی پرداخته شده است. به منظور دست یافتن به اهداف تحقیق و همچنین پاسخ‌گویی به سؤال‌های تحقیق از روش تحلیل محتوا از نوع تحلیل محتوای کمی استفاده شده است. تحلیل محتوای 70 مقاله اخیر نشریات جغرافیایی (پژوهش‌های روستایی) نشان می‌دهد که نگاه غالب هستی‌شناسی پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی در پارادایم اثبات‌گرایی جای دارد. همچنین، از نظر معرفت‌شناسی، در 54 مقاله رابطه پژوهشگر و پژوهش شونده به‌صورت سوژه ـ ابژه و بر اساس یک ارتباط دوگانه بوده است. بر اساس روش‌شناسی هم غالب پژوهش‌ها (57 مقاله) به روش صرفاً کمی اکتفا کرده‌اند. به منظور برون‌رفت از وضعیت فعلی پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی (حاکمیت اندیشه اثبات گرایانه) پژوهشگران می‌توانند در کنار ابزارهایی مانند پرسشنامه، تکنیک‌ها و مدل‌های آماری و نرم‌افزارهای تحلیل فضا مانند جی‌آی‌اس (GIS) از «زبان» به عنوان خانه هستی، به شناخت و فهم فضای کنشگران محلی نائل شوند.

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