واکاوی نقش سرمایه اجتماعی در بهبود تاب‌آوری خانوارهای روستایی در شرایط خشکسالی در شهرستان دیواندره

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده مهندسی زراعی و عمران روستایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده مهندسی زراعی و عمران روستایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران.

چکیده

هدف کلی این پژوهش، واکاوی نقش سرمایه اجتماعی در بهبود تاب‌آوری خانوارهای روستایی در شرایط خشکسالی بود. جامعه آماری تحقیق شامل سرپرست خانوارهای‏ روستایی کشاورزان کوچک‌مقیاس در روستاهای شهرستان دیواندره بود (N=10099). با استفاده از فرمول نمونه‌گیری کوکران حجم نمونه 184 نفر به دست آمد که برای افزایش اعتبار یافته‏ها، تعداد 200 پرسشنامه بین اعضای جامعه آماری توزیع گردید که درنهایت 195 پرسشنامه تکمیل و عودت داده شد. روش نمونه‏گیری، تصادفی طبقه‏ای (بخش‌های مختلف به‌عنوان طبقه در نظر گرفته شد) با انتساب متناسب بود. ابزار اصلی تحقیق پرسشنامه‌ای بود که روایی آن توسط پانل متخصصان و پایایی آن توسط ضریب آلفای کرونباخ تأیید شد (α>0.7). تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‏ها با ‏استفاده از نرم‏افزار SPSSwin18 و Lisrel8.54 انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که خانوارهای موردمطالعه ازنظر وضعیت سرمایه اجتماعی در وضعیت مطلوبی قرار دارند اما ازنظر وضعیت تاب‌آوری در وضعیت مناسبی نیستند. همچنین، نتایج تحلیل همبستگی نشان داد که بین تمامی ابعاد سرمایه اجتماعی (اعتماد اجتماعی، مشارکت و اقدام جمعی، انسجام اجتماعی و عضویت در گروه‌ها) خانوارهای موردمطالعه و تاب‌آوری آنان رابطه مثبت و معنی‏داری وجود دارد. علاوه بر این، نتایج مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری پژوهش نشان داد که ابعاد سرمایه اجتماعی با ضریب تبیین 81 درصد ( 90/γ=0 , 81/t=17) اثر مثبت و معنی‏داری بر تاب‌آوری خانوارهای موردبررسی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


Agricultural Jihad Organization (2017). Investigating the status of agricultural products. Released in Mehr News Agency, (In Persian).
Ahmadi, A., Shabanali Fami, H., Nasrabadi, M. and Motee, N. (2015). Designing a Model for Improving Household Food Security in Small-Scale Farming Systems of Mazandran Province. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Economics and Agricultural Development, University of Tehran (In Persian).
Arbuckle, J. L. (1999). Amos (version 4.01) [computer software]. Chicago: Small Waters.
Arrow, K. Bolin, B. Costanza, R. Dagasputa, P. Folke, C. Holling, C. S. (1995). Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment. Science 268: 520–521.
Badjeck, C., Allison, E.H., Halls, A.S. and Dulvy, N.K. (2010). Impacts of climate variability and change on fishery-based livelihoods. Mar. Policy 34, 375–383, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2009.08.007.
Baumgartner, H. and Homburg, C. (1995). Applications of structural equation modeling in marketing research: A review. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13, Pp: 139–161.
Be´ne´, C., Wood, R. G., Newsham, A. & Davies, M. (2012). Resilience: New utopia or new tyranny? Reflection about the potentials and limits of the concept of resilience in relation to vulnerability reduction programmers. London: Institute of Development Studies and Centre for Social Protection. IDS working paper, vol. 2012, No. 405, CSP working paper no. 006 http://www.ids.ac.uk/research-teams/vulnerability-and-povertyreduction-team/publications/vpr-workingpaper-series.
Condly, S. J. (2006). Resilience in children: A review of literature with implications for education. Urban Education, 41(3), 211-236.
Cutter, S., Barnes, L. L., Berry, M., Burton, Ch., Evans, E., Tate, E. and Webb, J. (2008). A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global Environmental Change 18: 598–606.
Dixon, J., Gulliver, A. and Gibbon, D. (2001). Farming Systems and Poverty: Improvement Farmers’ Livelihood in a changing World, Rome and Washington D.C: FAO and World Bank. John Dixon and Aidan Gulliver with David Gibbon.
Dorstkargel Khili, H. (2016). The role of social capital in promoting, resilience to natural disasters with an emphasis on flood. Eighth International Conference on Comprehensive Crisis Management, Tehran, 2016 (In Persian).
Downing, T.E. and Bakker, K. (1998). Drought discourse and Vulnerability. Environmental change unit, University of Oxford, Oxford Ox 13 TB, UK. Retrieved from World Wide Web:http.//www.eci-ox. ac.Uk/ vulnerable communities/drought- discourse-andvulnerable-htm.
Engle, N. L. (2011). Adaptive capacity and its assessment. Global Environmental Change 21: 647–656.
Ericksen, P. J. (2008b). What is the vulnerability of a food system to global environmental change? Ecology and Society, 13(2), 14.
FAO (2010). Livelihoods strategies and household resilience to food insecurity: An empirical analysis to Kenya. http://erd.eui.eu/media/BackgroundPapers/Alinovi-RomanoD'Errico-Mane.pdf, Accessed date: 28 March 2016.
FAO (2013a). Resilient livelihoods-disaster risk reduction for food and nutrition security framework programed. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3270e.pdf, Accessed date: 3 July 2017.
FAO (2013b). Disaster risk Reduction: Strengthening livelihood resilience. http://www.fao. org/docrep/018/i3325e/i3325e15.pdf, Accessed date: 12 February 2018.
Forster, J., Lake, I. R., Watkinson, A. R. and Gill, J. A. (2014). Marine dependent livelihoods and resilience to environmental change: A case study of Anguilla. Marine Policy, 45, 204–212.
Francis, R. and Bekera, B. (2014). A metric and frameworks for resilience analysis of engineered and infrastructure systems. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Safety 121, 90–103.
Gangadharappa, H.V., Pramod, K. T. M. and Shiva, K. H. G. (2007). "Gastric floating drug delivery systems: a review". Indian J. Pharm. Ed. Res. 41, 295–305.
Gersonius, B., Ashley, R., Pathirana, A. and Zevenbergen, C. (2012). Climate change uncertainty: building flexibility into water and flood risk infrastructure. Climate Change, 1–13.
Holling, C. S. and Walker, B. H. (2003). Resilience defined [prepared for the Internet Encyclopedia of Ecological Economics]. http://www.ecoeco.org/pdf/resilience.pdf (accessed August 12, 2012).
Hossieni, S.M., Sharifzadeh, A., Gholamrezaie, S. and Akbari, M. (2011). Explaining the components of drought crisis management in the rural and nomadic regions of the south. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Research. 42(2), 41. (In Persian).
Institute for Development Studies (IDS) (1998). Sustainable rural livelihoods: A framework for analysis. IDS working paper, ian Scoones. https://www.staff.ncl. ac.uk/david.harvey/AEF806/ Sconnes1998.pdf, Accessed date: 16 July 2016.
Khaledian, V. and Ebarhimi, M. (2014). Water crisis and its management in Kurdistan Province case study in Divandarreh city. The 2nd National Conference on Crisis Management and HSE in vital arteries, Industry and urban management. Tehran (In Persian).
Klein, R. J. T., Nicholls, R. J. and Thomalla, F. (2003). Resilience to natural hazards: how useful is this concept? Environmental Hazards 5: 35–45.
Leah, J., Pradel, W., Cole, D. C., Prain, G., Creed-Kanashiro, H. and Carrasco, M. V. (2013). Determinants of household food access among small farmers in the Andes: examining the path. Public health nutrition, 16(01), 136-145.
León, J. and March, A. (2014). Urban morphology as a tool for supporting tsunami rapid resilience: A case study of talcahuano, Chile. Habitat International, 43, 250–262.
Levin, S., Barrett, S., Anyar, S., Baumol, W. C. and Bolin B. (1998). Resilience in natural and socioeconomic systems. Environment and Development Economics 3: 221–235.
Lindsey, M., Andrew, H., Nevil, Q. and Paul, C. (2018). Learning for resilience': Developing community capital through flood action groups in urban flood risk settings with lower social capital. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 27, March 2018, Pages 329-342.
Maharjan, K. L. and Joshi, N. P. (2011). Determinants of household food security in Nepal: A binary logistic regression analysis. Journal of Mountain Science, 8(3), 403-413.
Manteghi, M., Eskandarpour, B., Dastyari, A. and Nazari, Y. (2016). The Role of Social Capital in Innovative Performance of Employees, Emphasizing the Role of Resilience and Empowerment, Quarterly Journal of Social Capital Management, Vol 3, No 2, 189-207  (In Persian).
Marschke, M. J. and Berkes, F. (2006). Exploring strategies that build livelihood resilience: A case from Cambodia. Ecology and Society, 11(1), 42.
Martin, K. S., Rogers, B. L., Cook, J. T. and Joseph, H. M. (2004). Social capital is associated with decreased risk of hunger. Social science & medicine, 58(12), 2645-2654.
Matarira, C.H., Pullanikkatil, D., Kaseke, T., Shava, E. and Manatsa, D. (2013). Socio-economic impacts of climate change on subsistence communities. Int. J. Clim. Change Strategies Manag. 5, 404–417, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJCCSM-06-2012-0034.
McEntire, D., Crocker, C. G. and Peters, E. (2010). Addressing vulnerability through an integrated approach. Disaster Resielence in the Built Environment, Vol 1 (1): 50-64.
Meteorological Organization of Kurdistan Province (2017). Office of the Meteorological Organization of the province and rainfall situation in the province relative to the year. Available: http://www.kurdistanmet.ir (In Persian).
Mubaya, C.P., Njuki, J., Mutsvangwa, E.P., Mugabe, F.T. and Nanja, D. (2012). Climate variability and change or multiple stressors? Farmer perceptions regarding threats to livelihoods in Zimbabwe and Zambia. J. Environ. Manag. 102, 9–17,http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.02.005.
Nuorteva, P. M., Keskinen, and O. Varis. (2010). Water, livelihoods and climate change adaptation in the Tonle Sap Lake area, Cambodia: Learning from the past tounderst and the future. Journal of Water and Climate Change 1: 87–101.
Oparinde, A. and Hodge, I. (2011). Building livelihood resilience: A case study of factors affecting farm households' adoption of coping and adaptive strategies in rural Nigeria.
Paul, K. (2018). Collective efficacy, social capital and resilience: An inquiry into the relationship between social infrastructure and resilience after Hurricane Katrina. Creating Katrina, Rebuilding Resilience, 2018, Pages 283-304
Perrings, C. (2006). Resilience and sustainable development. Environment and Development Economics 11: 417–427.
Pinquart. M. (2009). Moderating effects of dispositional resilience on associations between hassles and Psychological distress. Journal of applied Developmental Psychology30.p, 53-60.
Piran, P., Asadi, S. and Dadgar, N. (2016). Investigating the role of social resilience in the success of the reconstruction process (Case study of rural communities of Astana and Baba-Peshiman doors after the earthquake in 2006 Solakhor plain of Lorestan province). Housing and Village Environment Quarterly, No 157, 87-96 (In Persian).
Prado, D. S., Seixas, C. S. and Berkes, F. (2015). Looking back and looking forward: Exploring livelihood change and resilience building in a Brazilian coastal community Deborah Santos. Ocean & Coastal Management, 113, 29–37.
Queensland Reconstruction Authority  (2011). Rebuilding a stronger, more resilient Queensland, The capacity to prepare for, withstand, respond to and recover from disasters.
Ramanath, R. (2016). Defying NGO-ization? Lessons in livelihood resilience observed among involuntarily displaced women in Mumbai, India. World Development, 84,1–17.
Redel, N. (2008). Sustainability of economic growth, resource efficiency and resilience. UNESCAP Expert Group Meeting, October 22–24, Bangkok.
Regional Food Security Analysis Network (RFSAN) (2016). Disaster risk reduction assessment-understanding livelihood resilience in Jordan. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/12122016, Accessed date: 6 July 2017 DISASTER RISK REDUCTION ASSESSMENT_V4 FINAL.pdf.
Renzaho, A. M. & Mellor, D. (2010). Food security measurement in cultural pluralism: Missing the point or conceptual misunderstanding? Journal of Nutrition, 26(1), 1-9.
Rostami, F. (2010). Designing and explaining the components of social capital development in agricultural education system. PhD thesis, Faculty of Economics and Agricultural Development, Tehran University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources (In Persian).
Rutter, M., Thapar, A., Pine, D. S., Leckman, J. F., Scott, S., Snowling, M. J. and Taylor, E. (2015). Resilience: concepts, findings, and clinical implications. Rutter's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 341-351.
Salehi, A. and Mehalizade, Y. (2005). Labor market changes, development, higher education and social capital. Proceedings of the Conference on Higher Education and Sustainable Development (In Persian).
Scheuer, S., Haase, D. and Meyer, V. (2012). Towards a flood risk assessment ontology –knowledge integration into a multi-criteria risk assessment approach. Computers, Environ. Urban Syst.
Shook, C. L., Ketchen, D. J. Jr., Hult, G. T. M. and Kacmar, K.M. (2004). An assessment of the useof structural equation models in strategic management research. Strategic Management Journal, 25, Pp: 397–404.
Singh, P.K. and Nair, A. (2014). Livelihood vulnerability assessment to climate variability and change using fuzzy cognitive mapping approach. Clim. Change 127, 475–491, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1275-0.
Solh, M. and Ginkel, M.V. (2014). Drought preparedness and drought mitigation in the developing world’s drylands. Weather Clim. Extrem. 3, 62–66, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2014.03.003.
Speranza, C. L. and Rist, U. W. S. (2014). An indicator framework for assessing livelihood resilience in the context of social–ecological dynamics. Global Environmental Change, 28(1), 109–119. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art3/, Accessed date: 4 June 2011.
Thulstrup, A. W. (2015). Livelihood resilience and adaptive capacity: Tracing changes in household access to capital in Central Vietnam. World Development, 74, 352–362.
Turner, B. L. (2010). Vulnerability and resilience: Coalescing or paralleling approaches for sustainability science? Global Environmental Change 20: 570–576.
Turton, C. (2000). The sustainable livelihoods approach and programme development in Cambodia, Working paper 130, London: Overseas Development Institute.
Waugh, C. E., Fredrickson, B. L. and Taylor, S. F. (2008). Adapting to life's sling's and arrows: Individual differences in resilience when recovering from an anticipated threat. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1031-1046.
Wilhite, D. A., Svoboda, M. D. and Hayes, M. J. (2007). Understanding the complex impacts of drought: A key to enhancing drought mitigation and preparedness. Water Resources Management, 21(5): 763-774.
Worku, A., Pretzsch, J., Kassa, H. and Auch, E. (2014). The significance of dry forest income for livelihood resilience: The case of the pastoralists and agro-pastoralists in the drylands of southeastern Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Economics, 41, 51–59.
Yovel, E. (2013). Shaping Resilience: Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into Land Use Planning. UN/ISDR, Incheon, Korea.