راهبردهای کشاورزان در واکنش به پیامدهای خشکسالی و بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر آن (موردمطالعه: شهرستان رشتخوار)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترا جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکده جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی محیطی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکده جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی محیطی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران.

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر وقوع خشکسالی‌های مکرر اثرات منفی زیادی بر محصولات کشاورزی داشته است. کشاورزان می‌توانند با استفاده از راهبردهای سازگاری، تا حدودی اثرات خشکسالی را کاهش دهند. لذا هدف این مطالعه بررسی راهبردهای کشاورزان در واکنش به پیامدهای خشکسالی و عوامل مؤثر بر استفاده از این راهبرد‌ها بوده است. تحقیق حاضر از نظر هدف، کاربردی و روش انجام آن توصیفی- تحلیلی است. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها پرسش‌نامه و مصاحبه بوده است. جامعه آماری خانوارهای روستایی شهرستان رشتخوار است (N=13716). با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 373 کشاورز به‌عنوان نمونه انتخاب شد. برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون رتبه‌ای هم‌انباشتگی نامحدود اکتشافی و مدل لجستیک باینری (روش LM- نیوتن- مارکارد- رافسون) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که کاهش منابع آب (882/0)، کاهش سطح زیر کشت (735/0) و افزایش هزینه‌های زندگی (698/0) مهم‌ترین پیامدهای خشکسالی می‌باشند. به ترتیب کشت گیاهان مقاوم به خشکی مانند زعفران، کاهش دفعات آبیاری، و پرداختن به مشاغل غیرکشاورزی مهم‌ترین راهبردهای کشاورزان در واکنش به پیامدهای خشکسالی بوده‌اند. متغیرهای سن، جنس، دانش بومی، نیروی کار، درآمد، تجربه کشاورز، و وسعت مزرعه به طور قابل‌توجهی با کاربرد راهبرد‌ها در ارتباط بوده‌اند. از نتایج پژوهش برای سازگاری بیشتر کشاورزان با پیامدهای خشکسالی در منطقه و روستاهای کشور می‌توان استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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