عوامل مؤثر بر شادابی و سرزندگی خانوارهای روستایی (موردمطالعه: شهرستان فومن)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران.

4 استاد، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

چکیده

شادابی و سرزندگی به‌عنوان یکی از شاخص‌های توسعه روستایی از سال 2000 به بعد در نگاه سازمان‌های بین‌المللی و به‌ویژه سازمان ملل برای تعیین سطح توسعه روستایی و توسعه کشورها موردتوجه قرار گرفته است. زیرا اکثر سازمان‌ها و نهادهای مرتبط با توسعه از شادابی به‌عنوان یکی از شاخص‌های مهم توسعه پایدار روستایی یاد کرده‌اند. با این حال یکی از موارد مهم برای بررسی شادابی در نواحی روستایی، شناسایی عوامل اثرگذار بر آن است. بر این اساس هدف از تدوین این پژوهش بررسی عوامل‌ مؤثر بر شادابی خانوارهای روستایی بوده است. تحقیق حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی و روش انجام آن توصیفی- تحلیلی است. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها، پرسشنامه و مصاحبه از نمونه‌ای منتخب مشتمل بر 170 خانوار از جامعه آماری خانوارهای روستایی شهرستان فومن (N=18675) با استفاده از تخمین شخصی و به روش نمونه‌گیری سهمیه‌ای بوده است. برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها از آمار توصیفی، آزمون رتبه‌ای هم‌انباشتگی نامحدود اکتشافی و مدل معادلات ساختاری استفاده شده است. نتایج سنجش میزان شادابی خانوارهای روستایی با استفاده از پرسشنامه فوردایس گویای آن است که شادابی خانوارها در سطح مطلوبی قرار داشته است. نتایج شاخص‌های مؤثر بر شادابی نشان داد که از بین 30 شاخص در نظر گرفته‌شده، 18 شاخص بیشترین اثر را بر شادابی خانوارها داشته است. همچنین نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری نشان داد مدل استاندارد مرتبه دوم شادابی خانوارها به ترتیب ضرایب مسیر متأثر از عوامل نهادی- مدیریتی، کالبدی، اقتصادی، شخصی-روان‌شناختی، اجتماعی، زیست‌محیطی، جغرافیایی و برخورداری قرار دارد. مقدار p کلیه پارامترهای لامدا در مدل فوق حاکی از تأیید کلیه روابط است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Ali Akbari, M. (2015). The Impact of Social Interactions in Urban Spaces through Approach of Improving Urban Vitality: A Case Study in Julfa district of Isfahan, Cumhuriyet Science Journal, 36 (4): 1155- 1162.
Ball, J. (2015). Using a Policy of ‘Gross National Happiness’ to Guide, the Development of Sustainable Early Learning Programs in the Kingdom of Bhutan: Aspirations and Challenges, Using a Policy of ‘Gross National Happiness, 2: pp 5-22.
Borodina, O. & Prokopa, I. (2019). Inclusive rural development: a scientific discourse, Economy and Forecasting, 3 (1): 70- 85.
Brule´, G., & Veenhoven, R. (2014). Freedom and happiness in nations. Why the Finns are happier than the French. Psychology of Well-Being: Theory Research and Practice, 4, 17.
Chang, E. C. Yu, T. Lee, J. Kamble, S. V. Batterbee, C. N. H. Stam, K. R. Chang, O. D. Najarian, A. S. M. & Wright, K. M. (2018).Understanding the Association Between Spirituality, Religiosity, and Feelings of Happiness and Sadness Among HIV-Positive Indian Adults: Examining Stress-Related Growth as a Mediator, Journal of Religion and Health, 57 (3): 1052- 1061.
Cloutier, S., Jambeck, J., Scott, N. (2014), The Sustainable Neighborhoods for Happiness Index (SNHI): A metric for assessing a community’s sustainability and potential influence on happiness, Ecological Indicators, 40 (2): 147- 152.
Diener, E., & Diener, C. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychological Science, 7(3): 181–185.
Diener, E., C. N. Scollon, & R. E. Lucas, (2003). "The Evolving Concept of Subjective Well-Being: The Multifaceted Nature of Happiness." Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology 15, pp  187-219.
Duncan, G. (2008). Should Happiness-Maximization be the Goal of Government? Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(2): 163–178.
Easterbrook, G. (2003). The progress paradox: How life gets better while people feel worse (first Ed.). New York: Random House.
Farhud, D., Malmir, M. KHanahmadi, M. (2014). Happiness & Health: The Biological Factors- Systematic Review Article, Iranian J Publ Health, 43(11):1468-1477.
Goldsmith, R. (2016). The Big Five, happiness, and shopping, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 31 (3): 52-61.
Hezar Jaribi, J., Moradi, S. (2014). Social vitality and related factors (study among students of Allameh Tabatabai University), National Studies, 15 (4): 3- 26.
Heidarisarban, V., Yariyesar, A., (2017). Factors affecting the improvement of social vitality from the perspective of villagers. Case study: Ardabil city, regional planning, 7 (25): 41-53.
Huang, J. (2019). Income Inequality, Distributive Justice Beliefs, and Happiness in China: Evidence from a Nationwide Survey, Social Indicators Research, 142 (1): 83-105.
Ibn Khaldun, A. (1990). Introduction by Ibn Khaldun, Mohammad Parvin Gonabadi, seventh edition, Scientific and Cultural Publishing Company, Volume One.
Johnson, J. & Wood, A. M. (2017). Integrating Positive and Clinical Psychology: Viewing Human Functioning as Continua from Positive to Negative Can Benefit Clinical Assessment, Interventions and Understandings, Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41 (2): 335-349.
Kaini, L. (2015). Design of a commercial and cultural center with a lively approach in public space (Master's thesis), Tabriz University of Islamic Arts.
Kavandi, S., Shaddel, T. (2013). The effect of geographical factors on ethics, Quarterly Journal of Bioethics 3 (9): 89-121.
Khakpour, M., Eshghi-Sanati, H. (2014). The effect of social and cultural factors on the physical texture of Gilan villages, housing and environment, 33 (148): 3- 20.
Kooshali, D., Azeri, A., Parvizi, R., Hosseini, S. (2015). Effect of Environmental Physical Elements in Creating Residential Complex's Vitality for the Enhancement of Social Interactions. The journal of Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 201(3):255-264.
Kuliesis, G. & Pareigienė, L. (2014). Impact of demographic factors to rural vitality, Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development, 36 (1): 3-25.
Leyden, M., Goldberg, A., Michelback, P. (2011). Understanding the pursuit of happi-ness in ten major cities. Urban Affairs Rev, 47, 861–888.
Liu, Z., & Liu, L. (2016). Characteristics and driving factors of rural livelihood transition in the east coastal region of China: A case study of suburban Shanghai. Journal of Rural Studies, 43(3): 145- 158.
Malmir, M., Khanahmadi, M., Farhud, D.D. (2017). Dogmatism and Happiness, Iran J Public Health, 46(3):326-332.
Mohammadi Yeganeh, B., Cheraghi, M., Samadi, F. (2016). Evaluation of the effects of housing quality on the vitality of rural settlements in Khavomirabad village, Marivan city, Applied Research in Geographical Sciences, 16 (43): 107-124.
Montazeri, A., Omidvari, S., Azin, S.A., Ainparast, A., Jahangiri, K., Sedighi, J., Ebadi, M., Farzadi, F., Moftoon, F., Tavousi, M., Hedayati, A.A., Fathian, S. (2012). The Happiness of the Iranian People and the Factors Affecting It: A Health Study from the Perspective of the Iranian People, Payesh, 11 (4): 467-475.
Montesquieu, Ch. (1983). The Spirit of the Laws, by Ali Akbar Mohtadi, 8th Edition, Amirkabir Publications, Volume One.
Musaizadeh, A., Mohammadi, M. (2018). Recognition of factors affecting the improvement of happiness quality in urban space by using the principles of happy city approach (case study: Chaharbagh Abbasi St., Isfahan), welfare planning and Social Development, 10 (37): 1- 25.
Myers, p. G. (2002). Happy and health. Psychology Science, 70, 97-97.
Qi, K. Fan, Z, Ng, C. N. Wang, X. Xie, Y. (2017). Functional analysis of landscape connectivity at the landscape, component, and patch levels: A case study of Minqing County, Fuzhou City, China, Applied Geography, 80 (2): 64-77.
Qiao, G. Chen, N. Thompson, M. and Xiao, X. (2019). Social tourism for Chinese rural left-Behind children: an instrument for improving their happiness, Journal Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 24 (5): 468- 481.
Rabieefar, V. (2017). Explaining the sustainability of the physical-spatial structure of rural housing in Zanjan province, Physical Development Planning, 4 (5): 71-90.
Rahmani-Khalili, E. (2015). The effect of social capital on social well-being in the presence of social support and religiosity variables, Culture-Communication Studies, 16 (32): 93-117.
Rehdanz, K. & Meddison, D. (2005). Climate and happiness, Ecological Economics, 52(2):111-125.
Ribeiroa, L.L., Luis, L. & Marinho, L. (2017). Gross National Happiness in Brazil: Ananalys is of its determinants, EconomiA, 18(2): 156–167.
Ryan, R. M & Frederick, C. M. (1997). On energy, personality, and health: Subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of well-being, Journal of Personality, 65, 529-565.
Sekulova, F. Jeroen, C.J.M., van den Bergh, (2013). Climate change, income and happiness: An empirical study for Barcelona, Global Environmental Change 23, pp 1467–1475.
Shahyvandi. A, Ghaleh Noei. M, Ali Pourasfahani, M. (2015). A Study of Physical Characteristics and Its Impact on the Vitality and Bioavailability of Old Urban Neighborhoods; A case study of Sanbolistan neighborhood of Isfahan, restoration and architecture of Iran (restoration of historical cultural monuments and structures), 5 (9): 13-26.
Singh, K. (2009). Rural Development: Principles, Policies and Management, India, SAGE Publications, Third Edition.
Toulabi Nejad, M., Paydar, A. (2018). Analysis of the relationship between livelihood diversity strategies and agricultural land management (Case: rural areas of Poldakhtar city), Geography and Development, 16 (51): 197-218.
Ura, K., Alkire, S., Zangmo,T. (2015). Provisional Findings of 2015 GNH Survey. Thimphu: The Centre for Bhutan Studies.
Vahida, F., Vaddehir, A., Farnam, M. (2014). General Survival in the Socio-Cultural Life of the City: Studies on the Theory of Social Quality Theory in Ardabil, Urban Sociological Studies (Urban Studies), 4 ( 11): 1- 34.
Veenhoven, R. (1988). the utility of happiness Social Indicators Research, 20(3):333-354.
Veenhoven, R. (2006). How do we assess how happy we are? Tenets, implications and tenability of three theories. USA: University of Notre Dame.
Veenhoven, R. (2009). The international scale interval study: Improving the comparability of responses to survey questions about happiness. In V. Moller & D. Huschka (Eds.), Quality of life in the new millennium: Advances in quality-of-life studies, theory and research, 35 (2):45-58.
Veenhoven, R. (2017). Greater Happiness for a Greater Number: Did the Promise of Enlightenment Come True?, Soc Indic Res 130, pp 9–25.
Veenhoven, R. (2018). Co-development of Happiness Research: Addition to ‘‘Fifty Years after the Social Indicator Movemen, Soc Indic Res, 135:1001- 1007.
Veenhoven, R. & Hagerty, M. (2006). Rising happiness in nations, 1946-2004. A reply to Easterlin Social Indicators Research, 79(2):421-436.
Welsch, H. (2006). ANALYSIS Environment and happiness: Valuation of air pollution using life satisfaction data, Ecological Economics 58, pp 801– 813.
Wessman, A.E. & Ricks, D.F. (1966). Mood and Personality, Holt, New York.
World Bank, (2018). staff estimates based on the United Nations Population Division's World Urbanization Prospects: 2018 Revision.
Wu, H., Cheng, C.C., & Ai, C. (2017). A Study of Experiential Quality, Equity, Happiness, Rural Image, Experiential Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions for the Rural Tourism Industry in China, International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 18(1):1- 37.
Zidansek, A. (2007). Sustainable development and happiness in nation. Energy, 32(2):891- 897.